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  • Are the majority of Americans related?

    I am going to start out with some very provocative points. I am prepared to defend each of them vigorously.

    > 1 cM segments are highly reliable and the danger of false positives is non-existant (unless you set the SNP's absurdly low).

    > pile-up's have meaning, but dismissing them as aberrations is easier than finding the meaning.

    > the majority of people who have 19th Century or earlier USA or American Colonial ties are related to each other with common ancestry in an 18th Century, extralegal slavery and bride selling operation in a part of North Carolina.

    Concerning 1.0 cM minimum segment matches, look at this item fron Felix Immanual:

    http://www.fi.id.au/2015/01/how-to-c...r-segment.html

    My take is that as long as you chose your SNP level correctly, short segments (as low as 1.0 cM) do not have a problem with noise. I also attempted my own crude experiment to determine if you got any noise with 1.0 cM minimum segments. It can be found at:

    GEDmatch Forums > DNA Utilities --> Interpreting DNA Comprison Results
    Subject: short segment matching experiment

    Only one or two people come up with kits that seemingly were not related to me. The best example was a person whose both sets of grandparents are from South East Nigeria. At my usual parameters of 250 SNP's and 1.0 cM minimum segment size, the result was 0.0 cm total of matching segments 1.0 cM or larger and 0.0 cM largest matching segment size. If you think about it, if the particular parameters used had a danger of creating false positive segments through a stochastical process, getting results of (0.0, 0.0) would be nearly impossible (you would always pick up some false-positive segments). I decided to see what would happen when I lowered the parameters to 100 SNP's with the 1.0 cM minimum segment. I finally got some matching segments to pop out. False positives you might say, but a couple of them were ones that I recognize which might have a connection back to Africa. Was it my slight amount of African heritage coming out? Maybe.

    The other person that I had a small match with was mostly Asian, but when we compared, some of our matching segments had meaning to me that connected him to the slavery and bride selling operation in North Carolina. Apparently his circa 1800 ancestor who was a refugee from the slave ring made his way to Mexico, then a later descendant on to the Philippines. I believe the other seven or so kits that posters contributed had matches with me with totals of matching segment above 300.0 cM and also had X-DNA matches to my mother. At this level of total matching segments, they all likely have several connections with me, mostly through the slavery and bride selling operation in the last point.

    As for the second point, consider the meaningful pileups and hot spots you will see in the third point.

    How did I come to the notion of the extralegal slavery and bride selling ring? I certainly did not dream it up and lower the parameters to prove it as a professional insinuated. My imagination is not that great. Basically I just started out, got past brick walls, and built on what I had. When my mother tested (she is from Canada), it became clear that she had a line that traced back to a North Carolina slave plantation on the slave side of the fence. Interesting my father had male relatives on the other side. That put me in a unique position to figure out what was going on. The findings since have been astounding and have great significance, both for genealogy and history.

    I would like some help in proving or disproving my hypothesis that I am related to the majority of people who have American ties, say prior to 1900, mostly through this slavery ring in North Carolina. The corollary is that the majority of people with 19th Century or earlier American ties are related to each other. If your earliest ties are later than that, feel free to participate too, but just note what your earliest connection is.

    My kit on GEDmatch is F239841. Please set parameters to 250 SNP's and 1.0 cM minimum segment size for the 'one to one' comparison. My mother's kit is F367106. Please do an X 'one to one' comparison with her with SNP's at 150 and also a 1.0 minimum segment. You maybe related to me but not get an X-DNA match with my mother because two males in a row will eliminate the possibility of an X-DNA match. Please just give your kit number and for the two tests the total of matching segments and the largest segment size. Please do not copy all of the individual matches as the length of the thread will get out of hand. If you have not uploaded your kit to GEDmatch, this might be a good excuse for doing that.

    I appreciate everyone's cooperation with this and am eagerly awaiting the results.

    Jack
    Last edited by georgian1950; 26 March 2015, 09:23 AM.

  • #2
    Sorry, for too many reasons to write down, I won't be participating. I would sooner use astrology to sort my smaller segments.

    Comment


    • #3
      the majority of people who have 19th Century or earlier USA or American Colonial ties are related to each other with common ancestry in an 18th Century
      Even if the above were true, it does not positively answer your opening question Are the majority of Americans related?.

      And even if the majority of Americans (50% of them + one) were related, the remainder is not. So one has to know their detailed ancestry in order to be able to use some specific methodology... Catch 22...

      W. (Mr.)

      Comment


      • #4
        Originally posted by dna View Post
        Even if the above were true, it does not positively answer your opening question Are the majority of Americans related?.

        And even if the majority of Americans (50% of them + one) were related, the remainder is not. So one has to know their detailed ancestry in order to be able to use some specific methodology... Catch 22...

        W. (Mr.)
        I'm not following your objection. If a person goes back eight generations, they have 256 possible lines (though some end with the same ancestor on account of cousins marrying). What I'm saying is that the majority of Americans who can trace back to earlier than 1900 have at least one line that has ancestry with this slavery and bride selling ring.

        It presents a problem with genealogical research. Time and time again on GEDmatch Forums, I see people who are related via this common ancestry, but they think they might be related by a common surname. A lot of wheel spinning is going on.

        Comment


        • #5
          Of course everybody is related. All of our pedigrees eventually run into each other, the only question being how far back one has to go. A recent paper illustrated that any two Europeans could find a common ancestor in the past 1000 years.

          Because all H. sapiens are related and come from a minimal population of the order of 10,000, we all share nearly all our DNA.

          However, that does not mean we will be able to find genealogically informative matches by looking at small regions of chromosomes. These small regions one may happen to be half identical (or identical if properly phased) with another person simply illustrates the deep common ancestry.

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by S9 H9 View Post
            Of course everybody is related. All of our pedigrees eventually run into each other, the only question being how far back one has to go. A recent paper illustrated that any two Europeans could find a common ancestor in the past 1000 years.

            Because all H. sapiens are related and come from a minimal population of the order of 10,000, we all share nearly all our DNA.

            However, that does not mean we will be able to find genealogically informative matches by looking at small regions of chromosomes. These small regions one may happen to be half identical (or identical if properly phased) with another person simply illustrates the deep common ancestry.
            I have been very specific about where the common ancestry is, an 18th Century extralegal slavery and bride selling ring in North Carolina. I would put the common ancestry at maybe seven to ten generations back. I reach a common ancestor there at seven generations.

            Comment


            • #7
              Originally posted by georgian1950 View Post
              I have been very specific about where the common ancestry is, an 18th Century extralegal slavery and bride selling ring in North Carolina. I would put the common ancestry at maybe seven to ten generations back. I reach a common ancestor there at seven generations.
              Your original question was Are the majority of Americans related? .

              We can assume that no. There are groups that initially did not intermarry with the other ones often: Amish, Chinese, Japanese, Jewish, Korean, etc. (in alphabetical order). Almost any group that was large enough to marry its own only did so (like Italians). Thus although, after excluding Hispanics, there are around 60% of "Whites" in the US, one has to take into account that those writing in their census forms today Irish, Italian, Polish, etc. had ancestors who intermarried to lesser extent than their neighbours.

              Your statement about common ancestry of those who had at least one of their ancestors in the US before 1900 is probably true for let's say 80% of them. It could be even true for 95% of them. However, that is a general statement about population genetics and it does not help much anybody here in their quest. Even with 95%, and not 80%, both research avenues (related = 95% chance, and unrelated = 5% chance) have to pursued.

              W. (Mr.)
              Last edited by dna; 26 March 2015, 07:44 PM.

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by georgian1950 View Post
                My kit on GEDmatch is F239841. Please set parameters to 250 SNP's and 1.0 cM minimum segment size for the 'one to one' comparison. My mother's kit is F367106. Please do an X 'one to one' comparison with her with SNP's at 150 and also a 1.0 minimum segment. You maybe related to me but not get an X-DNA match with my mother because two males in a row will eliminate the possibility of an X-DNA match. Please just give your kit number and for the two tests the total of matching segments and the largest segment size. Please do not copy all of the individual matches as the length of the thread will get out of hand. If you have not uploaded your kit to GEDmatch, this might be a good excuse for doing that.

                I appreciate everyone's cooperation with this and am eagerly awaiting the results.

                Jack
                You may not be so eager after I ran the test you suggested above.

                Here are the results for the comparison of you and me:

                Comparing Kit M203724 (*MMaddi) and F239841 (*Jack Wyatt)

                Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 250 SNPs
                Mismatch-bunching Limit = 125 SNPs
                Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM


                Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
                2 68114519 70618196 2.4 254
                2 184526488 188895641 1.7 266
                3 111168865 114004663 1.8 274
                3 169265872 172013275 2.8 261
                3 178694996 181982477 2.6 293
                5 128442476 131824821 1.1 276
                6 145226197 148418778 2.4 292
                7 78071370 80425673 3.1 259
                7 98002671 101137488 1.9 278
                7 116004265 123040730 3.8 484
                8 17665222 18742311 2.3 334
                9 8659273 9894481 3.5 315
                9 72586910 74701947 1.4 265
                10 16398605 18631867 3.6 368
                10 72850773 77725897 3.8 436
                10 125716018 127723862 4.9 268
                11 61305450 64372813 2.7 261
                13 93768753 94886853 2.2 379
                14 84468638 86810778 2.7 283
                17 3108340 5294801 4.9 311
                18 23167219 26535250 3.5 362
                Largest segment = 4.9 cM
                Total of segments > 1 cM = 59.0 cM

                And for me and your mother:

                Comparing Kit M203724 (*MMaddi) and F367106 (Mrs. Barbara Collip Wyatt)

                Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 250 SNPs
                Mismatch-bunching Limit = 125 SNPs
                Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM


                Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
                1 111059247 112306737 1.7 255
                2 183663545 189262088 2.3 347
                2 192740989 197852247 3.3 297
                3 63872255 65693269 3.0 328
                4 32767051 36721107 2.6 252
                5 41336765 50365296 1.5 272
                7 42178374 44736394 3.2 279
                9 8700180 9883071 3.3 299
                9 92691478 95422157 2.1 276
                9 106726226 109368547 3.6 351
                11 61136437 63976255 2.6 258
                13 46169876 48398174 1.9 286
                16 13525219 17251981 4.3 368
                16 64989924 70559809 2.4 290
                Largest segment = 4.3 cM
                Total of segments > 1 cM = 38.1 cM

                All four of my grandparents were born in Italy in the period between 1873 and 1882. The earliest any of them arrived in the U.S. was in 1889, my paternal grandfather.

                Unless you have some Italian ancestry, both of these results are gross false positives. How else could you describe a situation where the Atlantic Ocean separated my ancestors and yours until about 125 years ago, yet they share this much DNA, if your proposed test is to be believed?

                Not one of these supposed shared segments reaches a threshold of 500 SNPs, even the ones that are almost 5.0 cM. I know that the threshold at 23andMe is 5.0 cM and 700 SNPs, which none of these would meet. I'm not sure what the SNP threshold is at FTDNA. I think it may be 500. Even that threshold is not met in our "shared segments."

                I'm sorry, but if this test is any indication, your proposed lower threshold for shared segments (IBD) will probably lead to many false positives (IBS).
                Last edited by MMaddi; 26 March 2015, 09:33 PM.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by MMaddi View Post
                  You may not be so eager after I ran the test you suggested above.....

                  All four of my grandparents were born in Italy in the period between 1873 and 1882. The earliest any of them arrived in the U.S. was in 1889, my paternal grandfather.

                  Unless you have some Italian ancestry, both of these results are gross false positives. How else could you describe a situation where the Atlantic Ocean separated my ancestors and yours until about 125 years ago, yet they share this much DNA, if your proposed test is to be believed?

                  Not one of these supposed shared segments reaches a threshold of 500 SNPs, even the ones that are almost 5.0 cM. I know that the threshold at 23andMe is 5.0 cM and 700 SNPs, which none of these would meet. I'm not sure what the SNP threshold is at FTDNA. I think it may be 500. Even that threshold is not met in our "shared segments."

                  I'm sorry, but if this test is any indication, your proposed lower threshold for shared segments (IBD) will probably lead to many false positives (IBS).
                  Thank you MMaddi. You actually provided a very interesting case. I should have laid out my meaningful segments beforehand, but my original post was getting lengthy. There were two lines related to my father that each had one or more very prolific male breeders. We have a matching segment for each of those lines:

                  Chr Start Location End Location (cM) SNPs

                  5 128442476 131824821 1.1 276

                  11 61305450 64372813 2.7 261

                  The segment on #5 is one that is an indicator of a particular Green line and the segment on number #6 is a Wilson line.

                  This ring seems to have kidnapped and enslaved Native Americans, free persons of color, probably shipwrecked or captured (by pirates) foreign sailors, etc. Bride selling would have been the primary function of the ring so the men probably were worked to death. If any males escaped, getting to the coast and taking a job as a seaman would be a good means of getting away. Looks like you had an ancestor who was a refugee from the slavery ring to land in Italy circa 1800.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by georgian1950 View Post
                    Thank you MMaddi. You actually provided a very interesting case. I should have laid out my meaningful segments beforehand, but my original post was getting lengthy. There were two lines related to my father that each had one or more very prolific male breeders. We have a matching segment for each of those lines:

                    Chr Start Location End Location (cM) SNPs

                    5 128442476 131824821 1.1 276

                    11 61305450 64372813 2.7 261

                    The segment on #5 is one that is an indicator of a particular Green line and the segment on number #6 is a Wilson line.

                    This ring seems to have kidnapped and enslaved Native Americans, free persons of color, probably shipwrecked or captured (by pirates) foreign sailors, etc. Bride selling would have been the primary function of the ring so the men probably were worked to death. If any males escaped, getting to the coast and taking a job as a seaman would be a good means of getting away. Looks like you had an ancestor who was a refugee from the slavery ring to land in Italy circa 1800.
                    With all due respect, it sounds like you've decided that your theory is correct and you're trying to incorporate the comparison of my results to yours to add further "proof" to your theory. I don't know about anyone else, but I think it's about as likely that one of my ancestors was Native American or an American free person of color who landed in Italy as one of my ancestors was from Mars.

                    I actually have done the paper trail research for all lines in my tree back to at least 1800, with some back to about 1750. All ancestors' lines, except one, have been documented as Italian born. The one I can't document is my paternal line. My great-grandfather Nunzio Maddi was abandoned as an infant in Sicily, so I don't know anything about his parents. He was born about 1845. However, I do know his yDNA haplogroup, since it's the same as mine - R1b-CTS2509. This is a northern European haplogroup, not Native American or sub-Saharan African. Also, I have a 43/43 match in STRs with someone named Salerno, with ancestors from a town about 25 miles from where my great-grandfather lived. And I have a 104/111 match with a man whose ancestors were from Calabria, to the east of Sicily. A 104/111 match would indicate a common ancestor about 300-350 years ago, again showing that my paternal line has been in Sicily/southern Italy at least that long.

                    If your explanation of my shared segments is correct, then why do I get no significant level of East Asian or sub-Saharan African admixture in the admixture calculations at 23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Finder or gedmatch? If I have an ancestor from 200 years ago who was Native American or sub-Saharan African, surely one of the admixture calculators would show even a small amount.

                    You should consider that using such small segments with so few SNPs will lead to the type of false positive which I'm sure our "shared segments" represent.
                    Last edited by MMaddi; 27 March 2015, 12:05 AM.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      LOL

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by MMaddi View Post
                        If your explanation of my shared segments is correct, then why do I get no significant level of East Asian or sub-Saharan African admixture in the admixture calculations at 23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Finder or gedmatch? If I have an ancestor from 200 years ago who was Native American or sub-Saharan African, surely one of the admixture calculators would show even a small amount.
                        The Native American and African in the ancestor 200 years ago was already diluted by at least a couple of generations of white fathers, plus some of the slaves were mulatto to start with. What I carry in me now is only a trace amount of color, maybe one percent (African and Native American). It's probably the same with you.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Originally posted by dna View Post
                          Your statement about common ancestry of those who had at least one of their ancestors in the US before 1900 is probably true for let's say 80% of them. It could be even true for 95% of them. However, that is a general statement about population genetics and it does not help much anybody here in their quest. Even with 95%, and not 80%, both research avenues (related = 95% chance, and unrelated = 5% chance) have to pursued.

                          W. (Mr.)
                          It's not a general statement about population genetics. I should have been more precise, but the breeding is being done by a handful of white males, and I am very close to identifying who the guilty ones were.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            I match an 8000 year old skeleton Loschbour from Luxembourg more closely than most of these segments. 6.9 cm/1029 snps.

                            I see you also match Loschbour at 6.8cm/496 snps.
                            Comparing Kit F239841 (*Jack Wyatt) and F999918 (Loschbour, Lux., 8ky)

                            Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 250 SNPs
                            Mismatch-bunching Limit = 125 SNPs
                            Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM


                            Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
                            1 29975519 30779624 1.8 372
                            1 53539560 54473295 1.6 275
                            1 58846018 60030519 1.8 313
                            1 64887907 66548725 1.5 418
                            1 81789345 82825222 1.3 251
                            1 100538284 101603213 1.1 273
                            1 104553384 105831868 1.2 273
                            1 116597047 117986855 1.9 359
                            1 148795509 150565857 1.2 417
                            1 170536265 173359463 1.8 455
                            1 199504276 200237185 1.8 286
                            1 216415532 218180538 1.4 437
                            2 26751005 28482200 1.0 350
                            2 33572977 34183221 1.3 255
                            2 36545455 37558270 1.7 308
                            2 47722197 48862616 1.7 255
                            2 75240654 76418405 1.6 340
                            2 84277484 85517910 1.0 270
                            2 115395781 119181782 2.4 714
                            2 153872190 155022540 1.2 255
                            2 156993397 158492813 1.1 255
                            2 161553130 164081222 1.6 383
                            2 177304108 178734547 1.5 321
                            2 181972196 183789319 1.2 377
                            2 188217305 190851836 1.0 443
                            2 206516304 207798149 1.9 320
                            2 218651093 220174443 2.6 363
                            2 235570584 236672911 2.7 304
                            3 25052678 26527082 2.1 359
                            3 39403245 40876656 1.3 313
                            3 51385525 53589524 1.0 392
                            3 58563059 59686057 1.4 279
                            3 63473743 64518655 2.1 343
                            3 120989085 123526019 1.2 502
                            3 126247104 127651920 1.7 380
                            3 131712632 133752284 1.8 436
                            3 139524269 141053194 1.3 287
                            3 184867368 185541275 1.3 256
                            4 11239147 12615435 1.4 304
                            4 40392856 41925534 2.9 367
                            4 60264032 61796182 1.1 265
                            4 82939355 84362613 2.2 291
                            4 100610127 102260259 1.6 298
                            4 118200742 120126850 1.2 361
                            4 120167494 122022704 1.1 365
                            4 130350075 131530717 1.0 289
                            4 138754884 140756098 2.7 451
                            4 142799266 145690587 1.5 383
                            4 147434476 149242356 1.9 304
                            4 159318234 161333586 1.5 304
                            4 185673372 186782713 4.2 306
                            5 12056910 13887445 1.8 278
                            5 13903750 14813607 1.3 277
                            5 25747485 27568508 1.3 334
                            5 54292307 55680877 1.2 263
                            5 61128382 63019280 1.1 314
                            5 72454797 73467757 1.5 300
                            5 79437173 81104103 2.5 436
                            5 81205416 82293747 1.8 252
                            5 84441632 88489132 2.0 542
                            5 100624630 103099314 1.8 452
                            5 105431996 106767009 1.1 253
                            5 107265102 109071966 1.4 345
                            5 123898170 124806564 1.5 261
                            5 128889377 132590630 1.5 613
                            5 136373568 140497615 2.0 680
                            5 168832384 169749555 2.6 362
                            5 176770398 178196022 2.7 355
                            6 42816606 43823972 2.4 251
                            6 52158452 52870476 1.0 270
                            6 56379940 62743620 1.1 311
                            6 92175850 94053858 1.5 426
                            6 97202786 99835163 1.9 407
                            6 110465943 112179298 1.7 350
                            6 114666887 117181321 1.1 395
                            6 164453741 165374678 1.4 260
                            7 140018 1608435 1.6 278
                            7 9159649 10188528 1.8 312
                            7 19348048 20148545 1.3 251
                            7 27329940 28321210 1.3 259
                            7 39248933 40778604 1.3 260
                            7 48310276 49797350 1.5 335
                            7 62299906 65913652 1.1 296
                            7 109629970 111052498 1.1 282
                            7 132171723 133941409 1.0 294
                            7 134117313 135237022 1.2 292
                            7 145361411 146831509 2.0 304
                            8 4440444 4989022 1.6 356
                            8 6867213 9218611 3.6 458
                            8 17408320 18076390 1.4 353
                            8 18238132 18890681 1.5 396
                            8 20621041 21347296 1.2 254
                            8 26950461 27790383 1.2 367
                            8 29592130 31643514 2.2 438
                            8 42025252 49947198 1.4 437
                            8 51557869 53537958 2.1 373
                            8 59887602 61293393 1.3 296
                            8 69136657 70137712 1.5 260
                            8 70537515 72413579 2.8 500
                            8 73651525 75251256 2.1 415
                            8 80437016 81969653 1.4 301
                            8 85232761 87916057 1.2 364
                            8 99455770 101647156 2.0 269
                            8 115516679 117398850 1.2 318
                            8 125799522 126835178 2.1 280
                            8 126937412 128316227 2.5 360
                            8 140654708 141429349 1.7 273
                            8 141652078 142784563 2.1 266
                            8 143606915 144982353 1.7 343
                            9 175632 865947 1.6 356
                            9 9044913 9894498 2.1 361
                            9 19651573 20571910 1.7 268
                            9 21920505 23132396 1.7 328
                            9 26303814 27174714 1.1 265
                            9 75982947 77282181 2.1 309
                            9 78701319 80589674 2.5 465
                            9 86036753 88694862 4.2 752
                            9 90085004 91650439 3.2 346
                            9 93583494 95209382 1.1 326
                            9 122018702 123412910 1.1 261
                            10 4637506 5380759 1.6 284
                            10 16487492 17175170 1.4 292
                            10 23024881 24320017 1.3 283
                            10 30265730 31080098 1.8 262
                            10 59941830 61465914 1.7 371
                            10 67188052 68263922 1.7 354
                            10 76355107 77581192 1.3 263
                            10 83048779 84670479 1.8 466
                            10 87815478 90451421 2.1 597
                            10 131707697 132439328 2.1 268
                            11 12520529 13733825 1.6 358
                            11 23541962 24788322 1.9 360
                            11 35732389 37001477 2.2 454
                            11 45041107 46166835 1.3 302
                            11 113021108 113769070 1.5 281
                            11 119035976 119870238 1.3 252
                            11 124807932 125917258 2.1 380
                            11 129936506 130591251 2.3 255
                            12 8920953 9953348 1.4 261
                            12 20218675 21207219 1.8 422
                            12 22928034 24187127 1.7 385
                            12 28100833 29263896 1.7 258
                            12 32051358 39313205 1.8 1084
                            12 48923562 50535932 1.8 297
                            12 61355683 62772552 1.4 375
                            12 84100623 87869168 1.4 472
                            12 102468803 103702802 1.7 504
                            12 108747191 111515857 1.4 390
                            12 124966104 125873604 2.2 320
                            13 24695535 25955640 3.2 325
                            13 66796732 69847219 1.9 745
                            13 70869374 71990320 2.0 321
                            13 72501694 73406494 1.5 315
                            13 76316442 77733228 1.1 340
                            14 21063338 21799539 2.2 288
                            14 30330681 31852319 3.2 295
                            14 33852087 35947390 2.0 416
                            14 37667882 40843575 1.3 615
                            14 51300112 52558141 1.2 406
                            14 56227519 57195892 1.8 272
                            14 65329147 68023570 1.2 461
                            14 68358185 69460509 1.4 284
                            14 77850864 80085173 2.5 559
                            14 90015100 91175931 2.0 289
                            14 96270424 97177687 2.6 256
                            15 25609587 27699112 5.2 364
                            15 37655209 38492397 1.5 261
                            15 88061149 89665398 2.5 438
                            15 90684307 91363527 2.7 256
                            16 7804621 8451785 2.2 288
                            16 13230842 14033831 1.2 273
                            16 15913069 16814247 1.7 274
                            16 20052140 21589483 2.2 273
                            16 53850696 54926666 1.8 333
                            16 59658897 61200432 1.1 299
                            16 80240973 81237892 3.1 452
                            16 81697744 82179468 1.5 281
                            17 2831295 3768668 2.5 295
                            17 3768737 5509028 3.7 490
                            17 10700093 11382906 1.5 258
                            17 12307998 13071681 1.7 277
                            17 14587654 15227916 2.8 293
                            17 44403960 45594056 2.1 286
                            17 50959091 52107708 2.6 319
                            17 53529499 56846063 2.8 510
                            17 63674826 64974394 2.0 370
                            18 6597253 7980780 6.8 496
                            18 24364998 26341696 2.1 421
                            18 36884542 38144678 1.2 274
                            18 42437002 43510320 1.2 272
                            18 46634524 49397704 2.8 668
                            18 61546433 62848204 1.3 286
                            20 6674127 7514496 2.4 261
                            20 7519870 8514072 2.3 312
                            20 20326932 22752107 2.0 497
                            20 61407741 62374274 1.2 266
                            21 18644417 19626353 2.2 254
                            21 19846416 20829247 2.0 292
                            21 29845548 32261211 2.8 604
                            21 42341223 43603771 3.0 581


                            I think we can safely conclude we are all human.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              A very high percentage of 1 and 3 cM segments are what I call pseudo-segments in my 'Satiable Curiosity column in JoGG "Identity Crisis: Identical by State or Identical by Descent?"

                              http://www.jogg.info/72/files/Turner.htm

                              They would disappear if you used phased data.

                              See also illustrations in this article showing how small segments don't behave as you would expect over the span of several generations.

                              http://www.yourgeneticgenealogist.co...gments-as.html
                              Last edited by Ann Turner; 27 March 2015, 06:10 AM.

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