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Middle East Jewish PF, Part II

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  • Middle East Jewish PF, Part II

    So I now see how complex the PF results can be.

    I have now uploaded my raw data to GedMatch and am even more perplexed by the returns.

    On all four (Dodecad,MDLP,Harappa,Eurogenes), generally shows my highest admixture in the Northern/Northeastern European(about 8-50% on most chromosomes).

    But then things become very interesting with very high resolution(around 37%) in the Atlantic Mediterranean/Eastern Mediterranean/Western Mediterranean/Northeast African/West Asian/Red Sea (and the equivalent of, depending on which function I use).

    I also have a high resolution (and by high in all instances we are talking 7%-35% across the 22 chromosomes) in sub-saharan (not surprising).

    But I also have very high resolution in the Baltics (11%-46%) across all 22 chromosomes on the Eurogenes.

    To complicate things, I also have lower resolutions (<11%) in AmerIndian, Siberian, Oceanian,Arctic Amerind, Pygmy,Samoedic, Indo-Iranian,East South Asian (10.6% on one chromosome only),South African,Near East (4%-12% across all 22),Indian, South American AmerIndian, MesoAmerican,Indo Tibetan, Paleo Siberian.

    If I take a composite snapshot, this tells me a story that for the most part, is not a part of my family's known history.

    On the PF, 20% turns up "Adygei, Iranian, Jewish", but these give a more poignant breakdown. Which of these geographies (on the Gedmatch function) indicate Jewish ancestry?

    With such a diverse and high resolution of geography, is there any way for me to tell in which generation this relative(s) of mine could be in?

    Which is a more resourceful tool of correlating my dna with geography, PF, or the tools at GEDmatch?

    All of my matches on the FF page seem to be of the English vanilla types, so I wonder if I am misinterpreting the data...

  • #2
    The admixture calculators at gedmatch at this point are generally more informative and useful than PF. One problem that PF is notorious for is giving levels of Middle Eastern or Middle Eastern (Jewish) which are unrealistically high. This occurs at the level of about 8-10% for people with only northern European ancestry and 50-100% for Sicilians/southern Italians. At the point sometime this year that PF goes from 20 European reference populations to 50 and is taken out of beta phase, it will probably be as good as or maybe even better than the gedmatch tools.

    The main thing to understand is that the results you've listed above shouldn't be taken literally. For instance, it's not telling you that you have recent (last few hundred years) ancestry from some remote area from your known ancestry because you have 10% of the component for that area.

    The various components that any of these calculators give you are generally fairly old and occur at different levels among all Europeans. Those with southern European ancestry will have larger percentages of Mediterranean and Near Eastern components, but even northern Europeans have some of those components too, just at lower levels than southern Europeans.

    It looks like what you've reported below is what you got from the chromosome painting admixture tools. A better way to get a reading on minority aspects of your ancestry is to instead use the "Admixture Proportions (with link to Oracle)" option.

    Try using Dodecad k7b and k12b. Once it gives you the various percentages, you can do two things which will help you get a good reading on your ancestry.

    First, you can click on the "Oracle-4" button below the percentages. It will give you its estimate of the most likely majority parts of your ancestry. There will be a single population estimate, but also 2 populations, 3 populations and 4 populations. The other tools, besides Dodecad, also have an "Oracle-4" option.

    The other thing to do is download the population reference spreadsheets for k7b - https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/...mZJY2pQblVRR2c - and k12b - https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/...hl=en_US#gid=0. Then you can compare your percentages for the components with the average for the group which most corresponds to your ancestry. For instance, if you're British Isles in ancestry, compare your percentages to the percentages for the British Isles groups in the spreadsheet. Then you can see for which components you have a higher percentage than the average for your ethnic ancestry. That may point you toward some minor ancestry that corresponds to that higher percentage. You can also sort the spreadsheets to see which modern populations have the higher percentage for specific components and see where your percentage for that component places you among European populations. That also may give you clues about minor ancestries you may have.
    Last edited by MMaddi; 17 January 2014, 06:13 PM.

    Comment


    • #3
      According to MSLP-22, it's about an even split between North-East-Europe, and Atlantic-Mediterranean (because "near East" and "West Asian" can be bundled into the Mediterranean geographically).

      To me, this is a great surprise, but leaves me scratching my head.

      Thoughts?

      Comment


      • #4
        Sorry Mike!

        We posted at identical times.

        Thanks for the response and I'll do what you offered, though I think that I had this morning, returning the same results.

        You know a little about my checkered and questionable past, but, I think that much of this is coming from my mother's side as opposed to my father's.

        I'll let you know what the oracle function churns up.

        Comment


        • #5
          Long, but here they are.(MDLP-22)

          Originally posted by MMaddi View Post
          The admixture calculators at gedmatch at this point are generally more informative and useful than PF. One problem that PF is notorious for is giving levels of Middle Eastern or Middle Eastern (Jewish) which are unrealistically high. This occurs at the level of about 8-10% for people with only northern European ancestry and 50-100% for Sicilians/southern Italians. At the point sometime this year that PF goes from 20 European reference populations to 50 and is taken out of beta phase, it will probably be as good as or maybe even better than the gedmatch tools.

          The main thing to understand is that the results you've listed above shouldn't be taken literally. For instance, it's not telling you that you have recent (last few hundred years) ancestry from some remote area from your known ancestry because you have 10% of the component for that area.

          The various components that any of these calculators give you are generally fairly old and occur at different levels among all Europeans. Those with southern European ancestry will have larger percentages of Mediterranean and Near Eastern components, but even northern Europeans have some of those components too, just at lower levels than southern Europeans.

          It looks like what you've reported below is what you got from the chromosome painting admixture tools. A better way to get a reading on minority aspects of your ancestry is to instead use the "Admixture Proportions (with link to Oracle)" option.

          Try using Dodecad k7b and k12b. Once it gives you the various percentages, you can do two things which will help you get a good reading on your ancestry.

          First, you can click on the "Oracle-4" button below the percentages. It will give you its estimate of the most likely majority parts of your ancestry. There will be a single population estimate, but also 2 populations, 3 populations and 4 populations. The other tools, besides Dodecad, also have an "Oracle-4" option.

          The other thing to do is download the population reference spreadsheets for k7b - https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/...mZJY2pQblVRR2c - and k12b - https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/...hl=en_US#gid=0. Then you can compare your percentages for the components with the average for the group which most corresponds to your ancestry. For instance, if you're British Isles in ancestry, compare your percentages to the percentages for the British Isles groups in the spreadsheet. Then you can see for which components you have a higher percentage than the average for your ethnic ancestry. That may point you toward some minor ancestry that corresponds to that higher percentage. You can also sort the spreadsheets to see which modern populations have the higher percentage for specific components and see where your percentage for that component places you among European populations. That also may give you clues about minor ancestries you may have.
          Kit Number: F72248

          Admix Results (sorted):

          # Population Percent
          1 North-East-European 38.63
          2 Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic 27.50
          3 Sub-Saharian 12.85
          4 West-Asian 6.82
          5 North-European-Mesolithic 4.55
          6 Near_East 3.62
          7 Samoedic 2.41
          8 Mesoamerican 1.92
          9 Indo-Iranian 0.90
          10 North-Amerind 0.81


          --------------------------------

          Least-squares method.

          Using 1 population approximation:
          1 Serbian @ 17.013
          2 Macedonian @ 17.510
          3 German-South @ 17.655
          4 Montenegrin @ 17.663
          5 Lumbee @ 17.836
          6 Bulgarian @ 18.350
          7 German_V @ 18.405
          8 Swiss @ 18.415
          9 Hungarian @ 18.430
          10 Austrian @ 18.448
          276 iterations.



          Using 2 populations approximation:
          1 50% German +50% Lumbee @ 3.915
          2 50% Hungarian +50% Lumbee @ 3.969
          3 50% Croatian +50% Lumbee @ 4.389
          4 50% Bosnian +50% Lumbee @ 4.548
          5 50% Lumbee +50% Slovenian @ 4.759
          6 50% Austrian +50% Lumbee @ 4.760
          7 50% German_V +50% Lumbee @ 4.762
          8 50% Croatian_V +50% Lumbee @ 5.116
          9 50% CEU_V +50% Lumbee @ 5.149
          10 50% German-North +50% Lumbee @ 5.369
          38226 iterations.



          Using 3 populations approximation:
          1 50% Lumbee +25% Italian_North +25% Russian_North @ 2.885
          2 50% Lumbee +25% Provancestralal +25% Russian_North @ 2.996
          3 50% Lumbee +25% Mordovian +25% Provancestralal @ 3.083
          4 50% Lumbee +25% Mordovian +25% Swiss @ 3.099
          5 50% Lumbee +25% Italian_North +25% Mordovian @ 3.104
          6 50% Lumbee +25% Russian_North +25% Swiss @ 3.228
          7 50% Lumbee +25% Italian_North +25% Russian_V @ 3.341
          8 50% Lumbee +25% Moldavian +25% Provancestralal @ 3.379
          9 50% Lumbee +25% Russian_V +25% Swiss @ 3.381
          10 50% Lumbee +25% Italian_North +25% Moldavian @ 3.394
          2825560 iterations.



          Using 4 populations approximation:
          1 Italian_North + Lumbee + Lumbee + Russian_North @ 2.885
          2 Lumbee + Lumbee + Provancestralal + Russian_North @ 2.996
          3 Lumbee + Lumbee + Mordovian + Provancestralal @ 3.083
          4 Lumbee + Lumbee + Mordovian + Swiss @ 3.099
          5 Italian_North + Lumbee + Lumbee + Mordovian @ 3.104
          6 Lumbee + Lumbee + Russian_North + Swiss @ 3.228
          7 Italian_North + Lumbee + Lumbee + Russian_V @ 3.341
          8 Lumbee + Lumbee + Moldavian + Provancestralal @ 3.379
          9 Lumbee + Lumbee + Russian_V + Swiss @ 3.381
          10 Italian_North + Lumbee + Lumbee + Moldavian @ 3.394
          11 Estonian + Italian-North + Lumbee + Lumbee @ 3.398
          12 Lumbee + Lumbee + Provancestralal + Russian_V @ 3.431
          13 Italian-North + Lumbee + Lumbee + Russian_North @ 3.458
          14 Lumbee + Lumbee + Mordovian + Portugese @ 3.530
          15 German-South + Lumbee + Lumbee + Tatar_Kryashen @ 3.543
          16 Lumbee + Lumbee + Moldavian + Swiss @ 3.561
          17 Corsican + Estonian + Lumbee + Lumbee @ 3.578
          18 Lumbee + Lumbee + Mordovian_V + Swiss @ 3.598
          19 French + Lumbee + Lumbee + Mordovian @ 3.604
          20 German + Lumbee + Lumbee + Serbian @ 3.617

          18802345 iterations.

          Done.

          Elapsed time 20.8121 seconds.

          Comment


          • #6
            Dodecad 7b results.

            Population
            South_Asian -
            West_Asian 11.12%
            Siberian 2.76%
            African 13.61%
            Southern 12.91%
            Atlantic_Baltic 59.52%
            East_Asian 0.08%

            Using 1 population approximation:
            1 Hungarians @ 17.112
            2 French @ 18.571
            3 French @ 18.783
            4 Romanians @ 19.685
            5 Bulgarians @ 20.477
            6 Spaniards @ 20.571
            7 Mixed_Germanic @ 20.574
            8 Extremadura @ 20.633
            9 German @ 20.807
            10 Cataluna @ 20.879
            223 iterations.



            Using 2 populations approximation:
            1 50% Canarias +50% Mordovians @ 13.481
            2 50% Canarias +50% Russian @ 14.093
            3 50% Algerian +50% Lithuanians @ 14.561
            4 50% Canarias +50% Russian_B @ 14.581
            5 50% Mordovians +50% Portuguese @ 14.591
            6 50% Canarias +50% Russian @ 14.651
            7 50% O_Italian +50% Russian @ 14.744
            8 50% Extremadura +50% Mordovians @ 14.979
            9 50% Mordovians +50% Murcia @ 14.998
            10 50% Canarias +50% Mixed_Slav @ 15.029
            24976 iterations.



            Using 3 populations approximation:
            1 50% Russian_B +25% Lithuanian +25% Somali @ 2.276
            2 50% Russian +25% Lithuanian +25% Somali @ 2.300
            3 50% Russian +25% Belorussian +25% Somali @ 2.409
            4 50% Belorussian +25% Mordovians +25% Somali @ 2.429
            5 50% Russian_B +25% Belorussian +25% Somali @ 2.466
            6 50% Lithuanian +25% Mordovians +25% Somali @ 2.482
            7 50% Russian_B +25% Lithuanians +25% Somali @ 2.551
            8 50% Mixed_Slav +25% Lithuanians +25% Somali @ 2.569
            9 50% Russian +25% Lithuanians +25% Somali @ 2.633
            10 50% Belorussian +25% Russian +25% Somali @ 2.642
            1333093 iterations.



            Using 4 populations approximation:
            1 Lithuanians + Mordovians + Somali + Ukranians @ 1.883
            2 Lithuanians + Mixed_Slav + Mordovians + Somali @ 1.981
            3 Belorussian + Lithuanian + Mordovians + Somali @ 2.163
            4 Lithuanians + Mordovians + Polish + Somali @ 2.175
            5 Lithuanians + Russian_B + Somali + Ukranians @ 2.205
            6 Lithuanians + Russian + Somali + Ukranians @ 2.206
            7 Lithuanian + Mordovians + Polish + Somali @ 2.241
            8 Lithuanian + Russian_B + Russian + Somali @ 2.271
            9 Lithuanian + Russian_B + Russian_B + Somali @ 2.276
            10 Lithuanian + Russian + Russian + Somali @ 2.300
            11 Lithuanian + Mixed_Slav + Russian + Somali @ 2.314
            12 Lithuanian + Russian + Somali + Ukranians @ 2.315
            13 Lithuanians + Mordovians + Russian_B + Somali @ 2.330
            14 Lithuanians + Mixed_Slav + Russian + Somali @ 2.342
            15 Lithuanians + Mixed_Slav + Russian_B + Somali @ 2.343
            16 Lithuanian + Russian_B + Somali + Ukranians @ 2.347
            17 Lithuanian + Mixed_Slav + Russian_B + Somali @ 2.348
            18 Belorussian + Lithuanians + Mordovians + Somali @ 2.365
            19 Lithuanians + Mordovians + Russian + Somali @ 2.374
            20 Belorussian + Russian + Russian + Somali @ 2.409

            6638107 iterations.

            Done.

            Elapsed time 3.0003 seconds.

            Comment


            • #7
              Dodecad 12b results.(Oracle-4) Strange.

              North-European and Atlantic_Med are almost a split, yet in the population approximations, only Murcia and Andalucia are represented. The pop. samples are definitely light, but being that the percentages are close, I must have something from there in my modern ancestry, no?



              Kit Number: F72248

              Admix Results (sorted):

              # Population Percent
              1 North_European 36.73
              2 Atlantic_Med 30.25
              3 Sub_Saharan 12.36
              4 Caucasus 7.32
              5 Gedrosia 7.20
              6 Southwest_Asian 3.06
              7 Siberian 1.60
              8 East_African 1.48


              --------------------------------

              Least-squares method.

              Using 1 population approximation:
              1 Mixed_Germanic @ 17.271
              2 German @ 17.459
              3 Dutch @ 18.286
              4 French @ 18.526
              5 French @ 19.006
              6 Kent @ 19.393
              7 CEU30 @ 19.560
              8 English @ 19.650
              9 Hungarians @ 19.783
              10 British_Isles @ 20.714
              223 iterations.



              Using 2 populations approximation:
              1 50% Andalucia +50% Mordovians @ 14.532
              2 50% Andalucia +50% Russian @ 14.563
              3 50% Mordovians +50% Murcia @ 14.568
              4 50% Castilla_La_Mancha +50% Mordovians @ 14.577
              5 50% Norwegian +50% O_Italian @ 14.798
              6 50% Murcia +50% Russian @ 14.812
              7 50% Mordovians +50% Spanish @ 14.813
              8 50% Extremadura +50% Mordovians @ 14.857
              9 50% O_Italian +50% Swedish @ 14.869
              10 50% Mordovians +50% Portuguese @ 14.961
              24976 iterations.



              Using 3 populations approximation:
              1 50% Swedish +25% ASW30 +25% North_Italian @ 9.251
              2 50% Kent +25% ASW30 +25% Hungarians @ 9.278
              3 50% Swedish +25% ASW30 +25% N_Italian @ 9.280
              4 50% German +25% ASW30 +25% French @ 9.289
              5 50% German +25% ASW30 +25% French @ 9.291
              6 50% British_Isles +25% Hungarians +25% LWK30 @ 9.298
              7 50% English +25% ASW30 +25% Hungarians @ 9.301
              8 50% CEU30 +25% ASW30 +25% Hungarians @ 9.305
              9 50% Norwegian +25% ASW30 +25% N_Italian @ 9.313
              10 50% German +25% ASW30 +25% Cornwall @ 9.328
              1506024 iterations.



              Using 4 populations approximation:
              1 ASW30 + N_Italian + Norwegian + Swedish @ 9.241
              2 ASW30 + North_Italian + Swedish + Swedish @ 9.251
              3 ASW30 + Hungarians + Kent + Kent @ 9.278
              4 ASW30 + N_Italian + Swedish + Swedish @ 9.280
              5 ASW30 + Cornwall + Dutch + Hungarians @ 9.280
              6 ASW30 + Dutch + Hungarians + Kent @ 9.282
              7 ASW30 + British + Dutch + Hungarians @ 9.284
              8 ASW30 + British + Hungarians + Mixed_Germanic @ 9.286
              9 ASW30 + English + Hungarians + Kent @ 9.287
              10 ASW30 + CEU30 + Hungarians + Kent @ 9.288
              11 ASW30 + French + German + German @ 9.289
              12 ASW30 + North_Italian + Norwegian + Swedish @ 9.290
              13 ASW30 + French + German + German @ 9.291
              14 French + German + LWK30 + Norwegian @ 9.293
              15 ASW30 + Cornwall + Hungarians + Mixed_Germanic @ 9.296
              16 ASW30 + British_Isles + Hungarians + Mixed_Germanic @ 9.297
              17 British_Isles + British_Isles + Hungarians + LWK30 @ 9.298
              18 ASW30 + Dutch + English + Hungarians @ 9.300
              19 ASW30 + English + English + Hungarians @ 9.301
              20 ASW30 + CEU30 + English + Hungarians @ 9.303

              9066231 iterations.

              Done.

              Elapsed time 6.0471 seconds.

              Comment


              • #8
                As Mike mentioned, there is little that is distinctively Middle Eastern. It can all be explained by some European Mediterranean ancestry. Nothing in your Oracle results suggests Middle Eastern or particularly Jewish ancestry. Ashkenazis do have West Asian and Baltic ancestry but your pattern does not resemble the typical Ashkenazi pattern.

                Comment


                • #9
                  In seeing the population samples, I agree (to a degree)

                  Originally posted by josh w. View Post
                  As Mike mentioned, there is little that is distinctively Middle Eastern. It can all be explained by some European Mediterranean ancestry. Nothing in your Oracle results suggests Middle Eastern or particularly Jewish ancestry. Ashkenazis do have West Asian and Baltic ancestry but your pattern does not resemble the typical Ashkenazi pattern.
                  Perhaps there is no correlation, but my Y-Ht fits most closely with the Eastern European groups, more specifically the "R1b Jewish" project. With this, I am separating the "Jewish" from the "Middle Eastern" geographically. When I saw "Adygei" turn up in my PF, it made sense.
                  We have an NPE in my father's direct Y-line, and we're trying to figure it out.

                  Also, my mother is half African American, which is mixed with a family named "Jubar". There is a district in Damascus named "Jobar" where many Syrian Jews live. So my thinking was that perhaps it could have come from this lineage (his name was Abraham Jubar). But there is a lineage of Jouberts who came from France (but could have been M.E. prior to that). They were "dark complected" according to their military records.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    It definitely looks from both MDLP and Dodecad results that you have some sort of ancestry from northeastern Europe. In the 3 and 4 population estimates, you're getting Russian, Mordovian (part of Russia - see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mordovia), Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Norwegian and Swedish somewhat consistently. That's pointing to some ancestry from that part of Europe.

                    I don't know how you can reconcile that with your known ancestry or how far back it goes.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by Zaru View Post
                      Perhaps there is no correlation, but my Y-Ht fits most closely with the Eastern European groups, more specifically the "R1b Jewish" project. With this, I am separating the "Jewish" from the "Middle Eastern" geographically. When I saw "Adygei" turn up in my PF, it made sense.
                      We have an NPE in my father's direct Y-line, and we're trying to figure it out.

                      Also, my mother is half African American, which is mixed with a family named "Jubar". There is a district in Damascus named "Jobar" where many Syrian Jews live. So my thinking was that perhaps it could have come from this lineage (his name was Abraham Jubar). But there is a lineage of Jouberts who came from France (but could have been M.E. prior to that). They were "dark complected" according to their military records.
                      I'm not seeing any indications, at all, from your MDLP and Dodecad Oracle results that there's some Jewish ancestry. If there were, Ashkenazi or some Jewish sample name would come up, at least a few times, in the suggested estimates, especially in the 3 or 4 population estimates. It's just not there.
                      Last edited by MMaddi; 17 January 2014, 09:00 PM.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by MMaddi View Post
                        It definitely looks from both MDLP and Dodecad results that you have some sort of ancestry from northeastern Europe. In the 3 and 4 population estimates, you're getting Russian, Mordovian (part of Russia - see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mordovia), Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Norwegian and Swedish somewhat consistently. That's pointing to some ancestry from that part of Europe.

                        I don't know how you can reconcile that with your known ancestry or how far back it goes.

                        Here is what I discovered about my own (supposed)Y-Line, supported by paper all the way back to 1550, but not in the ballpark genetically with the rest of the group (who match each other and come from different ancillary lines):

                        I was able to document the lineage all the way back to 1550 Antwerp, and judging by the naming patterns and surname spelling, I believe they originally came from Denmark (Jutland), or a little further east.

                        This would be consistent with what I am seeing here, but my Y-line is DF13, and to date, have not tested positive for any downstream snps. I do not know of a high frequency of DF13 in that area.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          agreed.

                          Originally posted by MMaddi View Post
                          I'm not seeing any indications, at all, from your MDLP and Dodecad Oracle results that there's some Jewish ancestry. If there were, Ashkenazi or some Jewish sample name would come up, at least a few times, in the suggested estimates, especially in the 3 or 4 population estimates. It's just not there.
                          I will definitely look forward to the update on the PF!

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by Zaru View Post
                            Here is what I discovered about my own (supposed)Y-Line, supported by paper all the way back to 1550, but not in the ballpark genetically with the rest of the group (who match each other and come from different ancillary lines):

                            I was able to document the lineage all the way back to 1550 Antwerp, and judging by the naming patterns and surname spelling, I believe they originally came from Denmark (Jutland), or a little further east.

                            This would be consistent with what I am seeing here, but my Y-line is DF13, and to date, have not tested positive for any downstream snps. I do not know of a high frequency of DF13 in that area.
                            But remember that your Y-line is just one line out of all your ancestors in each generation. Let's say an average generation is 30 years. You've documented your Y-line back to 1550 Antwerp, about 400 years from your birth, assuming you were born in the mid 20th century. That's about 13 generations ago.

                            Do the math, as they say. In 1550 you had over 8,000 ancestors in that generation. Only one of them was your Y-line ancestor. That's leaves an awful lot of room for ancestors from other parts of Europe, including northeastern Europe. Autosomal testing is giving you a picture of the combined ancestry of all your lines, not just your Y-line.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Originally posted by MMaddi View Post
                              But remember that your Y-line is just one line out of all your ancestors in each generation. Let's say an average generation is 30 years. You've documented your Y-line back to 1550 Antwerp, about 400 years from your birth, assuming you were born in the mid 20th century. That's about 13 generations ago.

                              Do the math, as they say. In 1550 you had over 8,000 ancestors in that generation. Only one of them was your Y-line ancestor. That's leaves an awful lot of room for ancestors from other parts of Europe, including northeastern Europe. Autosomal testing is giving you a picture of the combined ancestry of all your lines, not just your Y-line.
                              Absolutely true. I am inclined to think that the further back, that endogamy would play a role (but not necessarily that far, as there still tends to be a lot of intermarriage in many places today) in isolating these patterns. Obviously, you're correct, the math can and does impact these results. It's my first day with these results, and it is fascinating indeed.

                              Any idea why there is so much Lumbee?

                              Comment

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