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Origin and branches for K1a10 (16048A)

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  • Origin and branches for K1a10 (16048A)

    Hi all,

    A question we have discussed before is whether mtDNA subclade K1a10, defined by 16048A by me, traveled from the British Isles to Scandinavia or the reverse. It's far more common in the FTDNA database in the British Isles, but there are a few from Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway) and continental Europe (Germany and France). Most have Irish orgins.

    I have previously suggested that the British or Irish origin was correct because I have not seen the precursor cluster - without 16048A and which I have called "Pre-K1a10" - in any Scandinavian samples, while that cluster is very common in the British Isles.

    Now I have a new method. I recently re-read Bryan Sykes' "Seven Daughters of Eve." He suggests that when you are looking for the origin of a haplogroup, etc., you should look not at where it is most common now, but rather where it is most diverse. K1a10 has a lot of different haplotypes, but I believe it can be divided into three major branches based solely on HVR1 mutations. (It and its "first cousin" subclade K1a9 typically don't have defining, and rarely private, coding-region mutations. Differing HVR2 mutations so far track the ones in HVR1; I have listed those too.) The three branches, which, since I came up with "K1a10," I'll give names:

    K1a10a - 16048A, 16291T (21)
    K1a10a1 - 16048A, 16051G, 16291T, 230T (4)
    K1a10b - 16047A, 16048A, 316A (4)

    (The numbers in parentheses are the counts of current members of the K Project. There are at least 82 K1a10 sequences in the FTDNA database, contrasted with the single example found by Dr. Doron Behar in the Mediterranean/Middle East for his Ashkenazi paper.)

    I haven't listed the six basic mutations virtually every K has, or 497T which defines K1a, or 195C which defines the group which also includes K1a9. But especially I haven't defined the three branches by the number of pairs of 524 insertions per haplotype. Behar didn't use those at all for his tree. If they were used, they would define even lower branches. Being heteroplasmic mutations, they make any tree very complex. Not that only one person in the K Project has an extra mutation, 16359C.

    All theww branches are represented in the British Isles. K1a10a1 is also found in Germany in the K Project. But Scandinavia only has K1a10a. Looking deeper into the FTDNA database and on MitoSearch does not change that. Whether this represents one or more British or Irish women taken to Scandinavia by Vikings or an earlier migration, I don't know. But by looking at diversity and the precursor cluster, I don't see how this subclade could have traveled from Scandinavia to Britain and Ireland. Britain-to-Scandinavia is logical by both tests.

    Bill Hurst

  • #2
    All these years and a lot of new data later, Bill Hurst's analysis still holds up. So I will update the K1a10 situation here rather than start a new thread.

    K1a10 is a European branch of mtDNA K. The branch is estimated in academic papers to be about 6,400 years old (Behar 2012) or about 6,600 years old (Costa 2013).

    Where the first woman to have the K1a10 mutation (16048A) lived is not certain. I know of just six examples of the earliest version of K1a10. They are shown as sun symbols on my Google Map at . They are not a cluster, so they don't indicate any place of origin.

    The greatest variety of K1a10 and its branches is in England. So whether the first K1a10 woman lived in what is now England or not, that must be where K1a10 first flourished and diversified.

    Most examples of K1a10 belong to its only widely recognized branch, K1a10a. That branch has been found in only four countries in Europe: Britain, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden. The first woman to have the K1a10a mutation (16091T) lived an estimated 2,700 years ago. Cases of K1a10a are shown as yellow, red, and green balloons on my Google Map.

    K1a10 appears to have another branch which is not yet widely recognized. It is K1a10 with the additional mutation 16047A, shown as purple balloons on my Google Map. The somewhat experimental academic paper by Costa et al. (2013) estimates that K1a10 with 16047A is only about 700 years old. With five English examples, one apparently Anglo-Irish example, and two other examples from Ireland, K1a10 with 16047A appears to have originated in England. However, English settlement in Ireland began in 1169 A.D., so K1a10 with 16047A may be centuries old in Ireland.

    The branch K1a10a has one or two further branches which are not yet widely recognized. One is K1a10a with 16051G, estimated to be about 800 years old (Costa 2013) and shown as green balloons, two in England and one in Scotland, on my Google Map. The other not widely recognized branch of K1a10a has a marker called "16093C!" in the Costa paper, and estimated there to be about 800 years old. The nature of this branch is unclear to me, even though it is my own branch.

    Assuming that K1a10 and its main branch K1a10a originated in what is now England, it would be interesting to know when it arrived in Scotland, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden. Unfortunately, there is no way to tell from this DNA. All of the yellow balloon cases on my Google Map are essentially identical to each other, with no mutations which would tell how long ago their common ancestor lived. Even the sophisticated software in the academic paper cited could not tell, because the cases in one country could be the descendants of more than one woman.