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  • lee1906
    replied
    Originally posted by casadecoqui
    Trends Genet. 2006 Jun;22(6):339-45.
    Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree.
    Torroni A, Achilli A, Macaulay V, Richards M, Bandelt HJ.
    Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Universita di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

    Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have entered a new phase since the blossoming of complete genome analyses. Sequencing complete mtDNAs is more expensive and more labour intensive than restriction analysis or simply sequencing the control region of the molecule. But the efforts are
    paying off, as the phylogenetic resolution of the mtDNA tree has been greatly improved, and, in turn, phylogeographic interpretations can be given correspondingly greater precision in terms of the timing and direction of human dispersals. Therefore, despite mtDNA being only a fraction of our total genome, the deciphering of its evolution is profoundly changing our perception about how modern humans spread across our planet. Here we illustrate the phylogeographic approach with two case studies: the initial dispersal out of Africa, and the colonization of Europe.
    ********************************

    Get this! One individual's HVR1 has TWENTY FOUR MUTATIONS... a new record!

    Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree

    If anyone has library privileges and can get this article I would be your cousin forever .... well, we probably are anyway!
    Dr. Ana,

    I can send you a pdf copy of this article. Just send me an email.

    Hoyte

    Leave a comment:


  • casadecoqui
    replied
    Trends Genet. 2006 Jun;22(6):339-45.
    Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree.
    Torroni A, Achilli A, Macaulay V, Richards M, Bandelt HJ.
    Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Universita di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

    Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have entered a new phase since the blossoming of complete genome analyses. Sequencing complete mtDNAs is more expensive and more labour intensive than restriction analysis or simply sequencing the control region of the molecule. But the efforts are
    paying off, as the phylogenetic resolution of the mtDNA tree has been greatly improved, and, in turn, phylogeographic interpretations can be given correspondingly greater precision in terms of the timing and direction of human dispersals. Therefore, despite mtDNA being only a fraction of our total genome, the deciphering of its evolution is profoundly changing our perception about how modern humans spread across our planet. Here we illustrate the phylogeographic approach with two case studies: the initial dispersal out of Africa, and the colonization of Europe.
    ********************************

    Get this! One individual's HVR1 has TWENTY FOUR MUTATIONS... a new record!

    Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree

    If anyone has library privileges and can get this article I would be your cousin forever .... well, we probably are anyway!

    Leave a comment:


  • Sasa
    replied
    UCSB online 3D gallery of modern primate relatives and fossil ancestors of humans.

    http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/projects/human/#

    Welcome to the UCSB online 3D gallery of modern primate relatives and fossil ancestors of humans. This gallery contains five modern primate crania, and five fossil crania. The crania can be rotated 360 degrees. Each cranium is accompanied by a short description of its relevance to human evolution, and a site map.
    You will need the Shockwave plugin from Macromedia to view this gallery (most browsers have this installed already). If necessary, you can obtain this plugin here.


    Sasa Sullivan

    Leave a comment:


  • Sasa
    replied
    Originally posted by casadecoqui
    University of South Florida Africana Project

    Researcher Audrey Poole's NC, SC, VA Archives

    Wills, names, locations, transcriptions of documents, migration information and lots more.

    Hmmm, my greatgrandmother's sister married a Poole in Perry County Alabama. This may have opened an new avenue for me to research.

    Sasa Sullivan

    Leave a comment:


  • GregKiroKH
    replied
    This graph shows percentage of your haplogroup in America and in Africa. For example, L1c is about 1/8 of the total in America that is 12.5%.

    http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJH...0631/fg1.h.jpg

    Leave a comment:


  • casadecoqui
    replied
    University of South Florida Africana Project

    Researcher Audrey Poole's NC, SC, VA Archives

    Wills, names, locations, transcriptions of documents, migration information and lots more.

    Leave a comment:


  • casadecoqui
    replied
    New article on African Haplogroup Dispersions

    New article, not available without a subscription at PNAS but here's the abstract:

    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.0510792103

    Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa ca. 60,000 years ago? A new model

    Paul Mellars

    Recent research has provided increasing support for the origins of anatomically and genetically "modern" human populations in Africa between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago, followed by a major dispersal of these populations to both Asia and Europe sometime after ca. 65,000 before present (B.P.). However, the central question of why it took these populations {approx}100,000 years to disperse from Africa to other regions of the world has never been clearly resolved. It is suggested here that the answer may lie partly in the results of recent DNA studies of present-day African populations, combined with a spate of new archaeological discoveries in Africa. Studies of both the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mismatch patterns in modern African populations and related mtDNA lineage-analysis patterns point to a major demographic expansion centered broadly within the time range from 80,000 to 60,000 B.P., probably deriving from a small geographical region of Africa. Recent archaeological discoveries in southern and eastern Africa suggest that, at approximately the same time, there was a major increase in the complexity of the technological, economic, social, and cognitive behavior of certain African groups, which could have led to a major demographic expansion of these groups in competition with other, adjacent groups. It is suggested that this complex of behavioral changes (possibly triggered by the rapid environmental changes around the transition from oxygen isotope stage 5 to stage 4) could have led not only to the expansion of the L2 and L3 mitochondrial lineages over the whole of Africa but also to the ensuing dispersal of these modern populations over most regions of Asia, Australasia, and Europe, and their replacement (with or without interbreeding) of the preceding "archaic" populations in these regions.

    (Dispersion map of haplogroups attached).
    Attached Files

    Leave a comment:


  • GregKiroKH
    replied
    I enjoyed this article. Now, I can review my notes to think about applications and theories.

    In populations of eukaryotic organisms, transmission of the nuclear genome between generations is often sexual, with genotypic diversity arising from mutation and recombination. In contrast, transmission of mtDNA in the majority of eukaryotes is clonal (1), with genotypic diversity arising from mutation alone. However, in considering mitochondrial genome evolution (1), there are two reasons why strict clonality need not be the rule. First, the molecular machinery required for mtDNA recombination is widespread. Homologous DNA recombination activity has been detected in human mitochondria (2), and intermolecular mtDNA recombination has been documented in plants (3) and animals (4); this recombination, however, is between mtDNA sequences sharing the same history of descent.
    1. Birky, C. W. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 11331-11338 [Abstract].
    2. 2. Thyagarajan, B., Padua, R. A. & Campbell, C. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 27536-27543 [Abstract/Free Full Text].
    3. 3. Lonsdale, D. M., Brears, T., Hodge, T. P., Melville, S. E. & Rottmann, W. H. (1988) Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 319, 149-164 [ISI].
    4. 4. Lunt, D. H. & Hyman, B. C. (1997) Nature (London) 387, 247 [CrossRef][ISI][Medline] (lett.).
    http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/95/3/1331

    Leave a comment:


  • Sasa
    replied
    A wealth of information about the many nations of Africa.

    "We have about 410 African Tribes
    listed here. Use the green arrows to
    navigate up or down and then click
    the dark tribe name to see information."

    http://www.gateway-africa.com/tribe/


    Sasa Sullivan
    Co-Administrator FTDNA African DNA Project

    HaplogroupL2

    HVR1 differences From CRS16223T 16278T 16294T 16309G 16368C 16390A 16519C

    HVR2 differences From CRS 073G 146C 152C 195C 263G 309.1C 315.1C

    Leave a comment:


  • Sasa
    replied
    The Global Africa Presence by Runoko Rashidi


    http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html



    Sasa Sullivan
    Co-Administrator FTDNA African DNA Project

    HaplogroupL2

    HVR1 differences From CRS16223T 16278T 16294T 16309G 16368C 16390A 16519C

    HVR2 differences From CRS 073G 146C 152C 195C 263G 309.1C 315.1C

    Leave a comment:


  • casadecoqui
    started a topic Articles and Interesting Links

    Articles and Interesting Links

    National Geographic News:

    New article in the next issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences:

    Climate Change May Have Spurred Early Human Migration, Study Says

    Rapid climate change may have enabled early humans to venture out of Africa and colonize the rest of the world, according to a new study.
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