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European tribe in pre-Columbian America?

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  • #31
    Prince Madoc

    Since I'm of Welsh decent on my y-dna side, I thought this was very interesting.




    http://www.geocities.com/ourmelungeo...h-indians.html

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    • #32
      This article speaks about the universal characteristic of the Iberian colonization of the Americas. It also speaks about how differently people think about other people. One person suggested (me), how many reports of bearded and multi-color hair Amerindians were in America when Columbus landed? I always thought this was an interesting solution to the pre-Columbian America problem.

      We propose an explanation based on the understanding that elevated genomic contributions from European males and Amerindian or African females depend not only on directional mating, but also on the “racial” and social category of the children born from these relations. In this respect, social practices in Brazil and in the United States diverge considerably. In Brazil, socially significant “races” are particularly categorized by the physical appearance of the individual (Harris and Kotak, 1963). There seems to be no descent rule and it is possible for two siblings differing in color to belong to completely diverse “racial” categories. Let us take as an example, the historically common Brazilian mating of a white European male with a Black African slave woman: the children with more pronounced physical African features would be considered Black, while those with more European features would be considered White (Parra et al., 2003). This created ample opportunity for the introgression of African mtDNA lineages into Whites and of European Y-chromosomal lineages into African Brazilians. Mutatis mutandis; the same would have occurred with Amerindians.

      In the United States, descent appears to be much more important than physical appearance (Harris and Kotak, 1963) as shown by the “one drop rule” and other hypodescent stipulations (Hickman, 1997). Thus, all the offspring of the historical mating of a White European male with a Black African woman would be considered Black regardless of physical appearance. This allows the introgression of Y-chromosomal lineages into Blacks, but not of African mtDNA lineages into American Caucasians.

      Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians
      V.F. Gonçalves, F. Prosdocimi, L.S. Santos, J.M. Ortega and S.D.J. Pena
      Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
      Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
      Corresponding author: S.D.J. Pena
      E-mail: [email protected]
      Genet. Mol. Res. 6 (2): 156-161 (2007)
      Received March 14, 2007
      Accepted March 14, 2007
      Published May 9, 2007

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      • #33
        There's a lot of stuff here, where to start.

        Columbus -- he died convinced he'd reached Asia. Sad, but he never did know where he'd really gone.

        The 'Inca' in Norway. That's a newspaper article, do people really trust newspapers to get it right? Ignoring the fact that the skeleton was older than the Incas, the bone in question is not unique to any particular group.
        See http://scienceblogs.com/aardvarchaeo...uy_was_not.php

        In fact, the 'Inca bone', isn't only found in the Inca. Rare, yes, but found all over the world.

        http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/art...?artid=1468202
        There is no reason to think that this person didn't come from somewhere in Eurasia.

        There is quite a bit of confusion about what is in fact very difficult and tricky field, genetics, specifically here Haplogroup X which in the case of Native Americans should be X2A. There's a discussion here:
        http://www.hallofmaat.com/read.php?1,464788,page=1
        which features people of very different viewpoints -- Gisele is the real expert there.

        Finally, the poor Chachapoyas. There is a pdf file here which has a lot of useful stuff
        http://anthro.colstate.edu/Church2006.pdf

        The guy pushing the blue-eyed claim the most is Gene Savoy, who also claims his son represents the second coming of Christ.

        Doug

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        • #34
          North Atlantic Gyre

          I haven't bothered to do much researching on this subject (Possible European Tribes in the Pre-Columbian Americas), but the very nature of the currents and trade winds of the North Atlantic sets up a strong possibility of Europeans making landfalls in the Americas over thousands of years. But deliberate colonization is another matter, I would think.

          R1a1 & U5b2

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