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Migrations within Scandinavia

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  • #61
    I believe the "diftongs" ai, au and ey are evidence on the connection between Norway, Swedish Jämtland and Finnish Ostrobothnia;

    När det gäller skandinaviska dialekter, så kan man tala om tre olika typer av diftonger:

    * (1) Fornärvd diftong (ur fornnordiska ai, au eller ey),
    * (2) diftongering av vokal som i fornnordiska var lång (dvs ur á långt a, é långt e etc.) samt
    * (3) diftongering av vokal som i fornnordiska var kort men som förlängts (dvs ur fornnordisk kort vokal framför kort konsonant).

    Typ (1) kallas primära diftonger, typ (2) sekundära diftonger ur primärt långa vokaler och typ (3) sekundära diftonger ur sekundärt långa vokaler. I sydsvenska (och - med subtilare diftonger - också centralsvenska) dialekter, t.ex. skånska, halländska, småländska etc., finns bara typ (3); i österbottniska, norska och jämtska finns bara typ (1) (och i vissa dialekter även typ (2), främst diftongering av gammalt á); i bondska, isländska finns både typ (1) & (2), i gutniska och färöiska finns typ (1) & (2) och inslag av (3) och i älvdalska finns typ (2) med inslag av typ (3). Den i särklass mest diftongrika skandinaviska dialekten är vallemål och närbesläktade dialekter i Setesdal i Norge, som har 12 olika diftonger som är av alla de beskrivna typerna. De näst mest diftongrika varianterna av skandinaviska är färöiska och gutniska med 7 eller 8 olika diftonger beroende på dialekt (i färöiska uttalas de primära diftongerna ei - ur fornnordiska ai - och oy - ur fornnordiska ey - lika, dvs /åi/, i nordliga dialekter, och i gutniska uttalas de sekundära diftongerna som bildats ur de primärt långa vokalerna é och í lika, dvs /ei/, i sydliga dialekter). På fjärde plats kommer älvdalska med 6 olika diftonger, vilket är anmärkningsvärt eftersom de alla i princip är typ (2). (De diftonger som är av typ (3) återfinns även hos dem som är av typ (2).) Det torde finnas en mångfald dialekter (sydvästjämtska, sognmål, skånska, bondska etc.) med 4 eller 5 olika diftonger, så dem lämnar vi därhän.


    • #62
      Iron Age cranial studies suggest that new population arrived Norway from Denmark or southern Sweden in the Iron Age. I guess it's possible that the older Norwegian population was mainly I1a and the new arrivals were largely R1b. The description "large, rugged and heavy browridges" fits me quite well, and also the Trønder type :

      "The Danish Iron Age crania form a homogeneous group. They belong definitely in the same class with the other Iron Age Nordics of Lausitz Urnfields inspiration, and more particularly the purely long-headed element in the Keltic blend, for the low vault and cylindrical transverse profile of the Keltic crania are also common here. Except for the lesser breadth of head and face, and greater vault length, they closely resemble the Keltic crania of Gaul and of the British Isles, and those of the Scythians, while they are virtually identical with the Armenian Iron Age skulls discussed in the last section. The Danish Iron Age crania, then, are probably the same as those of the ancestral proto-Kelts before their arrival in southwestern Germany, and of the ancestors of the Scythians and eastern Iranians. These Danes were a tall people, however, for the stature of 25 males was 171.5 cm. This agrees with that of the earlier peoples of the same re-gion, and with that of the Scythians. In this Danish series there was, without doubt, a selection on the basis of differential methods of disposal of the dead; the numerous Bronze Age population, compounded of Megalithic, Borreby, and Corded elements, could not have disappeared completely. After the various elements in the Danish population have had time to blend, we shall see them reappear.

      The Swedish population of the Iron Age, best represented by a smaller group of 14 males72 (see Appendix I, col. 40), was essentially the same as that in Denmark. There are, however, a few differences - the vault is higher, the face wider, the upper face shorter. Perhaps these more peripheral Scandinavians showed a little of the older blood.

      During the Iron Age, Norway was, for the first time, definitely settled by people comparable in civilization to those in Denmark and southern Sweden; it is likely that many of the earlier inhabitants of Jutland and the Danish archipelago had fled to the southwestern corner of that country, while other migrations came across from southern and central Sweden.

      The most extensive Iron Age series from Norway is that of Schreiner, which contains 27 male crania.73 (See Appendix I, col. 41.) These are quite different from those of either Denmark or Sweden. They are larger and much more rugged, with heavy browridges and strong muscular markings.
      Metrically, they approach the Upper Palaeolithic series of Morant; and they could fit easily into the range of the central European Aurignacian group. The Mesolithic crania of Stångenäs and MacArthur's Cave would not be out of place here. Yet in most dimensions, they fall a little short of the Upper Palaeolithic mean.

      They are purely dolichocephalic, with a cranial index of 71.7. On the whole, they are just what one would expect from a Danish Iron Age - Upper Palaeolithic cross, with the latter in the majority, and this explanation agrees well with the archaeological data. The stature, 169.5 cm., fits both types. There is another possibility, however, that they had a strong Corded element. That some Corded blend entered into this mixture was indeed likely, but it is impossible to substitute the Corded for the Palaeolithic element, since the high vault of the former is not in sufficient evidence, and the faces of the Norwegians are wider than either Corded or Nordic. "