Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

Sanscritization, the spread of Indoeuropean language was cultural not genetic

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • Sanscritization, the spread of Indoeuropean language was cultural not genetic

    The motion "HgI people solely originated and distributed the IE language" appears to have been defeated.

    To repeat, the Rootsi et al paper (1), originally introduced by Mikey, makes it clear that Hg I was 27,000 years bp, aboriginal, all over Europe; already widely-distributed even before the Lesser Dryas, and early redistributed from refugia long before the arrival of IEspeak.
    Chronologically, it appears from the Rootsi data that a mix of Hg's (of course including post-refugial subclades of Hg I) , would have participated as recipients or as carriers or both, in the Great IE Speech Distribution, because it was a Cultural, not Genetic process; and a long one.

    The temporal, geographic and paleolinguistic scatter of the many forms of basic IE speech, indicate the process of acculturation spent maybe thousands of years filtering across Europe, sequentially added to small, culturally separated demic locations. No tidy "the National Language is different from now on" episode can be conceived.

    The motivation to convert to IE speech would vary , according to time, place, and peoples; conquest, seduction by easier transport like equitation, socially elite cultivation know-how, the cowboy lifestyle of the (autosomal dominant) lactose-tolerant mutants, and even religion.
    If you do not find this untidy explanation credible, consider what factors have, in two centuries sped by our rapid communication, made English a World language, without having left much genetic trace of how it happened.

    (1) "Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe" Rootsi, et al
    Am J Hum Genet. 2004 July; 75(1): 128–137.

  • #2
    Originally posted by derinos
    The motion "HgI people solely originated and distributed the IE language" appears to have been defeated.

    To repeat, the Rootsi et al paper (1), originally introduced by Mikey, makes it clear that Hg I was 27,000 years bp, aboriginal, all over Europe;
    What was the assumed mutation frequency? On what was that assumption based?

    Originally posted by derinos
    already widely-distributed even before the Lesser Dryas, and early redistributed from refugia long before the arrival of IEspeak.
    When did IEspeak arrive?

    Originally posted by derinos
    Chronologically, it appears from the Rootsi data that a mix of Hg's (of course including post-refugial subclades of Hg I) , would have participated as recipients or as carriers or both, in the Great IE Speech Distribution, because it was a Cultural, not Genetic process; and a long one.
    I believe it was a combination of the cultural and demic diffusion. But IE speech is only part of the IE ethno-linguistic complex. I'll have to ponder the cultural diffusion of lactos tolerance. It may not be as farfetched as it seems.

    Comment


    • #3
      derinos

      Hetware, the Rootsi et al paper is one you will approve; I suspect you will make better use of it than I. There is no link to it on this forum but it Googles as pdf on part or all of the following title:
      "Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe" Rootsi, et al
      Am J Hum Genet. 2004 July; 75(1): 128–137.

      Comment


      • #4
        derinos

        Good questions, Het.
        The dates I have are as follows (Ref: "Timescale" , Calder, Nigel, isbn 0-670-72571-9)
        Only some dates are based on recent DNA work. Most are archaeologic. md = milkdrinkers

        Culture Origin Language

        Horsemen md 4900 Lower Volga Proto-IE
        Northern md 4900 Middle Volga Proto-Uralic
        Cattlemen md 6000 Steppes fringe of. ProtoSemitic
        Horticulture(no plows)9500 SW Asia Unknown

        This implies that lactosetolerance arrived with the 6000ybp cowboys, well after primitive horticulture, and related to Semitic rather than Indo European language speakers. We shall see how the DNA work illuminates this when enough sampling has been done. There is no reason to expect language and allele-markers to coincide after so much time, since transmission is by such different means; along with human brain plasticity always being the joker in the pack. Autosomal dominant traits like lactose-tolerance escape independently into populations so the remote arrival date vanishes. IE arrival looks like 4900 ybp on the third wave of lifestyle improvement, sold by the lure of easy transportation by horse. I almost said hross!

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by derinos
          Good questions, Het.
          The dates I have are as follows (Ref: "Timescale" , Calder, Nigel, isbn 0-670-72571-9)
          Only some dates are based on recent DNA work. Most are archaeologic. md = milkdrinkers

          Culture Origin Language

          Horsemen md 4900 Lower Volga Proto-IE
          Northern md 4900 Middle Volga Proto-Uralic
          Cattlemen md 6000 Steppes fringe of. ProtoSemitic
          Horticulture(no plows)9500 SW Asia Unknown

          This implies that lactosetolerance arrived with the 6000ybp cowboys, well after primitive horticulture, and related to Semitic rather than Indo European language speakers. We shall see how the DNA work illuminates this when enough sampling has been done. There is no reason to expect language and allele-markers to coincide after so much time, since transmission is by such different means; along with human brain plasticity always being the joker in the pack. Autosomal dominant traits like lactose-tolerance escape independently into populations so the remote arrival date vanishes. IE arrival looks like 4900 ybp on the third wave of lifestyle improvement, sold by the lure of easy transportation by horse. I almost said hross!
          That seems to contradict a study I read a long time ago that was trying to show that all populations of Jews had a significantly high level of lactose intolerance. The ideas was to show that the Jews originated from the middle east, not from IE populations which had developed lactose tolerance. I recall Polomé mentioning several times that the IE drank some kind of milkbased and hydromel. But cattle are not the only souce of milk. There are sheep, goats and even horses - if my understanding is correct.

          Comment


          • #6
            I seem to recall Canaan being referred to as the land of milk and honey. This would seem poor advertising if the jews were lactose intolerant!

            Comment


            • #7
              I wonder why Caucasoid people in general developed such an interesting mutation. It seems like most people from Norway to Iraq do have it. I do not see much of a connection with other Caucasoid features such as high nose bridges or high amounts of body hair. But it sure can help people adapt to certain climates indirectly.

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by Eternitat
                I wonder why Caucasoid people in general developed such an interesting mutation. It seems like most people from Norway to Iraq do have it. I do not see much of a connection with other Caucasoid features such as high nose bridges or high amounts of body hair. But it sure can help people adapt to certain climates indirectly.
                From what little I know about the subject, there may have been more than one mutation resulting in the ability to digest milk. This article is interesting in that it claims Bedouins, Yemenites and Saudis are lactose tolerant. That doesn't surprise me a whole lot since they do seem to descend from nomadic populations. I have to say, however, calling lactose intolerance a disease seems wrong. It's just a minor physiological difference.

                Yemen has a very interesting history, BTW. Ever heard of the Queen of Sheba?


                Ad Targets Lactose Intolerant Jews
                By ROSS SCHNEIDERMAN
                FORWARD CORRESPONDENT

                Lactose intolerant Jews, don't be ashamed; you're not alone. According to a new ad for Lactaid milk, 60% of Jewish Americans suffer from the painful cramps, excessive flatulence and other uncomfortable symptoms associated with the disorder.

                The ad, which first appeared in the June issues of Hadassah and Reform Judaism magazines, features a picture of a woman with dotted lines on her upper lip — the place where her milk mustache should be. In the top right-hand corner, the ad inquires, "Miss Milk?" Below, the ad mentions the percentage of Jewish Americans who allegedly suffer from lactose intolerance and claims that Lactaid milk can help those with the disorder enjoy milk products without pain and discomfort.

                Jews aren't the only group affected. "Lactose tolerance is actually unusual," said Dr. Mark Walsh, a gastroneurologist and chairman of the Pharmacy and Therapeutic Committee at Miami Valley Hospital in Dayton, Ohio. "A lot of adults will lose a lot of the activity of lactase" — the enzyme that breaks down lactose, the simple sugar found in milk — "as they get older."

                Other experts agree. According to the Crohns and Colitis Foundation of America's Web site, "Chinese, Koreans, Japanese, Jews in Israel and elsewhere, and most Africans and their descendants demonstrate very high levels of lactose intolerance." The site claims that lactose tolerance is only common among northern Europeans and groups of Middle Eastern people such as Bedouins, Yemenites and Saudis.

                The CCFA site and Walsh both state that researchers believe that the lactase enzyme is generally present in newborns, but then decreases within the next two years of their lives. The site states that lactase "seems to remain at normal levels only in those peoples and regions whose adult populations depended upon milk as a staple for the last few thousand years."

                But if lactose intolerance is common, Jews of Eastern European descent, as well as Asians, are still disproportionately affected. Indeed, Lactaid's statistics may actually underestimate the disorder's prevalence; according to the CCFA site, "80 to 97% of Jews of European descent and Asian-Americans... report symptoms when they drink... three to four glasses of milk per day."

                As with any other disease, complications vary from person to person. The CCFA site says that some will show signs of lactose intolerance after just one glass of milk, while others may be able to imbibe large quantities without problems. In addition, some foods containing milk are less problematic than others; butter and processed cheese, for example, contain almost no lactose.

                The good news, Walsh says, is that products like Lactaid — both the milk, which is fortified with added lactase for easier digestion, and Lactaid pills, which can be taken before eating dairy products to reduce symptoms — can help lactose intolerant people. Yet he maintains that there is no miracle cure. "They can be helpful," he said. "But it's sometimes hard to calculate when and how much of the product one needs to take at a given time. If someone loves ice cream and they are lactose intolerant, they better take something — and enough of it."
                I only read the abstract on this one. I very briefly looked into the Peuhls, and found that they are not linguistically Semitic - according to one source. It makes me wonder if the assertion that they are "Semitic" is valid.

                Adult Lactose Tolerance in Senegal
                The isolated malabsorption of the lactose in the adult is an hereditary feature while is not found often in the white people but is spread out in black Africa. In Senegal, a ratio of about 29% is verified, changing according to the ethnic composition. Only the Peuhls, of semitic origin, show a full tolerance to lactose.

                Comment


                • #9
                  I may have some Jewish ancestry. My surname is very common among conversos. It's the surname of the person that gets credited the most with discovering the new world. I also have a slightly aquiline nose. And I'm the only one with wavy hair in my nuclear family.

                  Genetically, I'm mostly Spanish and a little bit German. Plus mtDNA A- any Amerind ancestry would not be within the past 200 years, though. So it would be mainly Catalan, Bavarian, Guanche, possibly Jewish, and possibly Arabic as well since my maternal grandfather looks extremely Mediterranean and many colonists were from Andalusia. So I may have Semitic from both linguistic and/or religious groups.

                  Not only am I lactose-tolerant, I'm a total rat. If I do not consume dairy every day, I become very weak and have to eat twice the usual quantities in order to maintain my energy levels. AFAIK, everyone in both sides of my family is lactose-tolerant.
                  Last edited by Eternitat; 14 January 2006, 04:32 PM.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    This appears to be a reasonably well researched summary of prevaling models of the development of farming and pastoralism in Northern Europe.

                    http://www.princeton.edu/~bogucki/mosaic.html

                    The introduction of agriculture and the successful establishment of farming communities on the lowlands of north-central Europe between 5000 and 3500 B.C. (recalibrated dating) marked one of the most significant transformations of prehistoric society in this region. Many difficulties in the discussion of the establishment of agriculture in north-central Europe stem from an overemphasis on the distinction between "Mesolithic" and "Neolithic" as adaptive patterns. Such a distinction brings about the notion of a boundary between communities practicing these two strategies. It is clear that there was a "frontier" of sorts between these Neolithic groups and the local foraging peoples. Yet it was a permeable frontier, and once domesticated plants and animals became available on the lowlands of north-central Europe, a well-defined boundary between distinct social entities effectively ceased to exist. Moore (1985: 94) has characterized frontiers between sedentary farmers and mobile foragers as "a cultural mosaic of interspersed communities with varying subsistence and settlement requirements." The North European Plain between 5000 and 3500 b.c. (perhaps a bit earlier and perhaps a bit later) can be described in such terms, as a mosaic cultural landscape.
                    From what I can gather, the arrival of farming in Northern Europe was late enough to include dairyfarming as part of the economy. OTOH, there seems to be some question as to whether dairyfarming may have traveled in the opposite direction. That is, from Europe to Asia Minor. This, however, seems unlikely.

                    As regards the ancestry of the Slavic Finno-Ugric and Germanic people, for a combination of political and practical reasons, there is a dearth of archaeological information from the most essential parts of north western Eurasia. I cannot stress enough the importance of climate changes, as well as the rising sea levels that took place over the past 12,000 years. The archaeological evidence we do have shows that populations tended to concentrate along rivers and shorelines. Though advantageous to survival of the species, it makes the job of proving it rather difficult.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      derinos

                      From our high perch in 2006, our awesome 70-millennial DNA vision tends to foreshorten more recent paleochronology from other disciplines.

                      Proto-IE, and Basque.

                      It was reasonably proposed by Mikey that "I" haplogroup people brought PIE (Proto-Indo European) from the Black Sea to Europe. This Hg "I" migration of ca 27000 ybp (as indicated in the Rootsi et al paper), was over 20 millenia too early to to match IE diffusion. Even the post-refugial, subclades of Hg"I" diffusion (ca 12000 ybp), was too early to fit the chronology of PIE distribution; apparently beginning ca.4000ybp, and not yet complete.
                      The Basque Language resettlement (!!) from the Aquitanian language mass, was relatively recent (ca 2500ybp). It is doubtful if a sole carrier haplogroup could be partialled out today after all the mixing; but who knows what is waiting in the wings (deep snp's by autoanalyser for everyone?)
                      Here is a good archaeolinguistic link on the IE-Basque relationship:

                      ..."So far as we know, the first Indo-European people to reach western Europe were the Celts. By 500 BC Celtic languages were spoken in Austria, Switzerland, southern Germany, northern Italy, most of France, much of Spain, Britain and Ireland. These languages had completely displaced the earlier languages that had previously been spoken in the same areas, and we know nothing about these earlier languages."

                      http://www.informatics.sussex.ac.uk/...rehistory.html
                      OR
                      http://www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/l.....rehistory.html




                      http://www.informatics.sussex.ac.uk/...rehistory.html
                      OR
                      http://www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/l.....rehistory.html

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Diverse Lactase Genes

                        This is an interesting report. It shows the Kalash of the Hindu Kush lack the haplotype markers whith a high a correspondence to lactase persistence in Europeans. Also, the high frequency of these markers in the non-IE Basque and Finnish populations is noteworth.

                        http://www.societyandgenetics.ucla.edu/bersaglieri.pdf

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          derinos

                          This responds to Hetware's point of the discorrelation between the first Cowboys (6000ybp) being denoted as Semitic speakers, but Jews (4000ybp) being often lactose intolerant. First, why expect the language of the LT Cowboys, and another tribe's religious choice of two millenia later, correlate with lactose tolerance in modern Jews four millennia later still? A Three-Body problem worthy of chaos theory? Still, there may be missing links.

                          1.This is the nature of the lactose tolerance mutation:
                          . "Recently, investigators have identified a genetic variant or SNP (C/T13910), 14kb upstream of the LCH (lactase-phlorizin hydrolase) locus on the large arm of human chromosome 2 (2q21). This variant, first identified in nine extended Finnish families [14], is responsible for lactose tolerance, ......" Ref below

                          2.This is the background:
                          The normal mammalian condition is for the young to lose the ability to effectively digest milk sugar (lactose) at the end of the weaning period (a species-specific length of time usually equal to roughly 3% of lifespan). In humans, lactase production usually drops about 90% during the first four years of life, though the exact drop and age varies widely. However, certain human populations have undergone a mutation on chromosome 2 which results in a bypass of the normal shutdown in lactase production, allowing members of these groups to continue consumption of fresh milk and fresh milk products throughout their lives.

                          . Recently, investigators have identified a genetic variant or SNP (C/T13910), 14kb upstream of the LCH (lactase-phlorizin hydrolase) locus on the large arm of human chromosome 2 (2q21). This variant, first identified in nine extended Finnish families [14], is responsible for lactose tolerance, (i.e., lactase persistence) or the ability for adults to consume fresh milk and milk products without complications. The polymorphism occurs in the promoter of the lactase gene and is thought to alter regulatory protein - DNA interactions controlling expression of the gene [15]. The 11 polymorphisms of this gene are clustered into 4 (A,B,C, U) prevalent (> 0.05%) haplotypes. The A haplotype conferring lactose tolerance has an 86% frequency in the northern European population, but only 36% in southern European populations. Cultures that drink fresh milk generally have a higher frequency of the A allele. The persistence of this gene in populations may confer selective advantages that include improved nutrition, prevention of dehydration, and improved calcium absorption.



                          Science Magazine ^ | 2004-11-19 | Jocelyn Kaiser
                          Posted on 11/20/2004 6:42:15 AM PST by Lessismore
                          End of citation ****************************

                          3. Since the mutation is classified as a dominant autosomal trait, it exists (and functions) independently of most other autosomal factors, all Y and Mt haplogroup designations, and of course language, religion or other acquired cultural factors. Also it would appear in children either of whose parents possess the mutation.

                          4. Speaking to Calder's table, where the 6000ybp lactose tolerant cattledrovers are Semitic speakers, yet alas modern American Jews are often lactose intolerant, there are numerous possibilities.
                          Calder may be wrong on the language of the Cowboys being protoSemitic.
                          Or, they may have spoken Kurgan (?protoSemitic), and migrated not to Mesopotamia but to Finland, a Turkic destination. If they went south instead, although Semitic speakers in Mesopotamia became very numerous; only a tiny genetically closed minority chose the Jewish religion, and 2000 years after the Cowboy migration at that. Jews, who appeared 2000 years after the migration, just may not have liked dairy farming; although milk is mentioned in the culinary 'metzvotim', it could have been goats' or sheeps'. More later?

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by derinos
                            From our high perch in 2006, our awesome 70-millennial DNA vision tends to foreshorten more recent paleochronology from other disciplines.

                            Proto-IE, and Basque.

                            It was reasonably proposed by Mikey that "I" haplogroup people brought PIE (Proto-Indo European) from the Black Sea to Europe. This Hg "I" migration of ca 27000 ybp (as indicated in the Rootsi et al paper), was over 20 millenia too early to to match IE diffusion. Even the post-refugial, subclades of Hg"I" diffusion (ca 12000 ybp), was too early to fit the chronology of PIE distribution; apparently beginning ca.4000ybp, and not yet complete.
                            The Basque Language resettlement (!!) from the Aquitanian language mass, was relatively recent (ca 2500ybp). It is doubtful if a sole carrier haplogroup could be partialled out today after all the mixing; but who knows what is waiting in the wings (deep snp's by autoanalyser for everyone?)
                            Here is a good archaeolinguistic link on the IE-Basque relationship:

                            ..."So far as we know, the first Indo-European people to reach western Europe were the Celts. By 500 BC Celtic languages were spoken in Austria, Switzerland, southern Germany, northern Italy, most of France, much of Spain, Britain and Ireland. These languages had completely displaced the earlier languages that had previously been spoken in the same areas, and we know nothing about these earlier languages."

                            http://www.informatics.sussex.ac.uk/...rehistory.html
                            OR
                            http://www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/users/l.....rehistory.html

                            The links are broken. Also, I have to take issue with the assertions about the Celts. First of all, there was a very ancient (1600BCE?) artifact etched with Greek letters discovered not too long ago in Germany. That, of course, does not put an Athens on the Rhein. It does, however, show some presence or contact with literate ancient Greeks.

                            More significantly, the Greeks had established a substantial presence in what is now southern France (Massalia), and even Spain (Empúries). One might argue these were not really Western Europe because they were restricted to the coast of the Mediterranean. If we consider what is known about the population distribution extending from Greek colonies such as Olvia and Tanis on the Pontic coast, we might expect the Greek influence extended well inland from the actual city. Whether that is the case or not, we do know there was some degree of trading contact between these colonies and the people inland. My sense is that the influence of both the Phoenician and Greek presence in the western Mediterranean and along the Atlantic seaboard has been significantly neglected in efforts to reconstruct the protohistory of Western Europe.

                            The same can be said for the Romans, but at least that average informed adult has some sense that they were present in the region.

                            I'm not sure how meaningful the association of the La Tene material culture with the Celtic languages is.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Originally posted by derinos
                              This responds to Hetware's point of the discorrelation between the first Cowboys (6000ybp) being denoted as Semitic speakers, but Jews (4000ybp) being often lactose intolerant. First, why expect the language of the LT Cowboys, and another tribe's religious choice of two millenia later, correlate with lactose tolerance in modern Jews four millennia later still? A Three-Body problem worthy of chaos theory? Still, there may be missing links.
                              The following discussion seems to contradict itself.

                              http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1284595/posts
                              TORONTO, CANADA--More than 5000 experts met here from 26 to 30 October for the annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics. Longevity, milk digestion, and cancer were among the topics.

                              By some estimates, less than half of all adults can easily digest milk, a trait believed to have first appeared in people who kept dairy animals. Now scientists have traced the genetic roots of milk tolerance to the Ural mountains of western Russia, well north of where pastoralism is thought to have begun. The surprising result may support a theory that nomads from the Urals were one of two major farmer groups that spread into Europe, bringing the Indo-European languages that eventually diverged into the world's largest family of modern languages.

                              Almost all mammalian babies produce lactase, the enzyme that digests the milk sugar lactose. But in most animals and many people, the lactase gene is gradually turned off after infancy, leaving them unable to tolerate milk as adults. Two years ago, a team led by Leena Peltonen of the University of Helsinki, Finland, and the University of California, Los Angeles, identified mutations near the lactase gene that are associated with adult lactose tolerance and likely play a role in regulating the lactase gene. Now, Peltonen's team has tried to trace the origins of lactose tolerance by looking at 1611 DNA samples from 37 populations on four continents.

                              The populations having the greatest DNA sequence diversity around the lactase gene mutations--suggesting that lactose tolerance first appeared in them--include the Udmurts, Mokshas, Ezras, and other groups that originally lived between the Ural mountains and the Volga River. The trait most likely developed 4800 to 6600 years ago, Peltonen says. Her team linked the lactase gene changes to an ancestral variant that these groups apparently got from intermixing with tribes migrating from the Asian steppes.

                              After the Ural peoples gained this earlier form of the lactase gene, the lactose tolerance mutation "probably emerged by chance," says Peltonen, and then remained because it was beneficial for milk consumption. The Ural groups then likely later spread the variant to Europe--especially northern Europe, which has the highest lactose tolerance today--and the Middle East. The findings support the somewhat controversial theory that nomadic herders known as Kurgans expanded into Europe from the southern Urals 4500 to 3500 years ago, bringing Indo-European languages with them, according to Peltonen.

                              "I find [the new study] very interesting," says population geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University. He notes that a competing idea for explaining the origin of the Proto-Indo-Europeans is that they were crop-growing farmers from the Anatolia region in modern Turkey (Science, 27 February, p. 1323). But the milk study reinforces Cavalli-Sforza's view that both theories are correct: Indo-Europeans migrated to Europe in two waves, first from Turkey and later from the Urals.

                              Other geneticists caution that trying to pin down where a gene variant originated is tricky because the people in whom it's most common today may have migrated from somewhere else, or the original population could now be extinct. But if the milk gene's origin holds up, linguists and archaeologists will have new food for thought.
                              It first suggests that lactace persistence originated in the Urls and spread westward. It then states: "The trait most likely developed 4800 to 6600 years ago, Peltonen says. Her team linked the lactase gene changes to an ancestral variant that these groups apparently got from intermixing with tribes migrating from the Asian steppes."

                              What on Earth does that mean?

                              Originally posted by derinos
                              Calder may be wrong on the language of the Cowboys being protoSemitic.
                              Or, they may have spoken Kurgan (?protoSemitic), and migrated not to Mesopotamia but to Finland, a Turkic destination. If they went south instead, although Semitic speakers in Mesopotamia became very numerous; only a tiny genetically closed minority chose the Jewish religion, and 2000 years after the Cowboy migration at that. Jews, who appeared 2000 years after the migration, just may not have liked dairy farming; although milk is mentioned in the culinary 'metzvotim', it could have been goats' or sheeps'. More later?
                              And now to put everything into disarray.

                              http://www.catalhoyuk.com/archive_re...4/ar04_35.html
                              The Emergence of Dairying in Early Farming Practices of the Fertile Crescent and the Balkans

                              Principal investigators: Professor Richard P. Evershed, Professor Andrew G. Sherratt & Dr Sebastian Payne ; Postdoctoral researchers: Drs Mark S. Copley & Jen Coolidge

                              A Leverhulme Trust funded project is aiming to determine the timing of the emergence of dairying in early farming practices through analyses of milk fat residues in pottery using a compound-specific stable isotope method developed by the Bristol group ( Science 1998) and previously applied to the study of the importance of dairying in prehistoric Britain ( Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences USA 2003). This new project will be the largest regional study ever undertaken using organic residues to answer an archaeological question. Since we will be drawing on pottery from sites across a wide geographic and temporal range, we have sought the cooperation of a large number of archaeologists, which includes the site of Çatalhöyük.

                              Objectives:

                              It is proposed to investigate pottery from a number of systematically selected archaeological sites from the Near East (including the Fertile Crescent) dating from 7500 BC, and from the adjacent part of south-east (Balkan) Europe dating from 6000 BC. ...
                              And I can even muck up the muck! TBC...

                              Comment

                              Working...
                              X