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Corded Ware Culture in Bohemia: Papac et al

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  • Corded Ware Culture in Bohemia: Papac et al

    Here’s an important paper on the ancient Corded Ware culture in Bohemia:

    https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/35/eabi6941

  • #2
    From page 5 of 18:

    ”We report genomic data from the earliest CW [Corded Ware] individuals to date, including STD003 (northwestern Bohemia, 3018 to 2889 calibrated (cal) BCE), VLI076 (central Bohemia, 3018 to 2901 cal BCE), OBR003 (central Bohemia, 2911 to 2875 cal BCE), and PNL001 (eastern Bohemia, 2914 to 2879 cal BCE), showing that CW was widespread across Bohemia by 2900 BCE. The early radiocarbon dates are also supported by these individuals’ genetic profiles, who occupy the most extreme positions on PC2 (Fig. 2B), as expected under a scenario of the earliest CW being migrants from the east who mixed with locals, resulting in intermediate PC2 positions in later generations.”

    The “extreme positions” remark in the quote above refers to the fact that skeletons VLI076, OBR003, and PNL001 cluster very closely to Yamnaya in the PC2 chart in Figure 2B, and STD003 clusters with the Neolithic farmers at the opposite end of the same chart.

    STD003 is one of four CW females with no steppe ancestry, the first and only CW remains thus far recovered without steppe ancestry.

    From page 6 of 18:

    ”We provide the first genomic data from CW individuals without steppe ancestry, thereby elucidating the social processes of interaction between CW and pre-CW people. Observing only females (four of four) among early CW individuals without steppe ancestry (Figs. 2B and 3C) suggests that the process of assimilating pre-CW people into early CW society was female biased.”

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    • #3
      Originally posted by Stevo View Post

      . . .

      From page 6 of 18:

      ”We provide the first genomic data from CW individuals without steppe ancestry, thereby elucidating the social processes of interaction between CW and pre-CW people. Observing only females (four of four) among early CW individuals without steppe ancestry (Figs. 2B and 3C) suggests that the process of assimilating pre-CW people into early CW society was female biased.”
      “[T]he process of assimilating pre-CW people into early CW society” is discussed by archaeologist Kristian Kristiansen in the video at the link below.

       

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      • #4
        Since most of Europe was Indo-Europeanized by Corded Ware and its offshoot, Bell Beaker, the origin of Corded Ware is an important mystery. It’s a mystery because Corded Ware, despite its high levels of Yamnaya-like autosomal DNA (usually referred to as steppe DNA), isn’t a simple two-way combination of Yamnaya and some single eastern or central European Neolithic farmer population. That is evident not only in autosomal DNA, but also Y-chromosome DNA. Thus far, Yamnaya has proven to be overwhelmingly R1b-Z2103. Early Corded Ware, prior to 2600 BC, on the other hand, is predominately R1b-L151, and Corded Ware after 2600 BC is mostly R1a-M417.

        So where did Corded Ware come from? Well, the authors of Papac et al found Latvia_MN-like autosomal DNA in their early Bohemian Corded Ware samples, so they put forward the possibility that Corded Ware came from the forest steppe north of Yamnaya.

        This is from page 10 of 18:

        ”Finding Latvia_MN-like ancestry in early CW, in conjunction with the absence of Y-chromosomal sharing between early CW and Yamnaya males, suggests a limited or indirect role of known Yamnaya in the origin and spread of CW to central Europe. Our results allude to either a northeast European Eneolithic forest steppe contribution to early CW (a region consistent with some interpretations of the archaeological evidence (57)] or a hitherto unsampled steppe population who carried excess Latvia_MN-like ancestry, a scenario that is less likely given the high degree of homogeneity among 3000 BCE steppe groups [e.g., Yamnaya and Afanasievo separated by ~2500 km but genetically almost indistinguishable (4, 61)]. As much of 4000- to 2500 BCE (north) Eastern Europe remains unsampled, inferring the precise geographic origin of early CW remains elusive.”

        Of course, the fact remains that Corded Ware had about 75% Yamnaya autosomal DNA overall, so they must have come from the same population pool, perhaps separating in the Eneolithic period.

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        • #5
          Interesting that the oldest CWC samples thus far tested were R1b-L151 (one of which was R1b-U106). The Linderholm et al paper, Corded Ware cultural complexity uncovered using genomic and isotopic analysis from south-eastern Poland, reported on a number of ancient samples in Małopolska in SE Poland, and all of them were R1b, mostly R1b-L151, as well, but several centuries more recent than the CW_Early samples in Papac et al.

          The Linderholm samples are supposed to have had an autosomal resemblance to samples from the Afanasievo culture. From page 8 of 13 of the Linderholm paper:

          "The most unusual signal identified is the one between CWC and the Afanasievo complex. This genetic incorporation from a Steppe population further east than the Yamnaya culture, is novel for these parts and suggests a CWC population structure and history more complex than previously thought."

          Linderholm et al also found an archaeological connection between their Małopolska samples and the Middle Dnieper culture.

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