I ran across an article by J.M. Butler titled "Recent Developments in Y-STR and Y-SNP Analysis", see it here: https://www.cstl.nist.gov/div831/ st...utler2003b.pdf, it was informative but also confusing - at least to me. Specifically - Table 8 in the article pertains to a SNP comparison of 20 African-American (listed as AA 1-20) and 20 U.S. Caucasian (C 1-20) males. If you look towards the middle of the table - individuals C9,C6,C7,AA9,AA14,C3, and C18 - all seven are shown as having the T allele at M89 but the table does not denote this as the derived state (i.e., the "T" is not italicized) which means they don't have the marker but I thought M89 was defined by the T allele? Another way of putting this is: How can someone be in any of haplogroups F-R (such as C6,C7,AA9,AA14,C3,C18 in the table) and not have the M89 marker???