Hi, can anyone give me a link to a good guide on how these haplogroup mutation terminologies work? For example, the famous M173, which only occurs in Y-dna haplogroups R1a and R1b, what does it mean EXACTLY? What part of the Y-dna strand is mutated. I'm supposing it's not base pair #173. How many mutations are there in this case? One, two, ten? From what to what did this/these base pairs change from/to? These are the sort of specific stuff I want to find out about. A guide detailing this in an exact manner.

Also, if any of you wonderful people could be so kind, and you know the answer (! ! ), can someone tell me (approximately is good enough), how many of the 51,000,000 base pairs in the Y-dna chromosome are different in at least one haplogroup. [For example, if base pair #40,400,233 is the same value in all haplogroups except in one single haplotype (say for example I1a2) within one single haplogroup (in this case Hg I), then that base pair would be counted as different.]

Let me push my luck a little more and ask the same thing (how many base pairs are different) but this time for all mtdna haplogroups.

Thank you very much!!!!

Also, if any of you wonderful people could be so kind, and you know the answer (! ! ), can someone tell me (approximately is good enough), how many of the 51,000,000 base pairs in the Y-dna chromosome are different in at least one haplogroup. [For example, if base pair #40,400,233 is the same value in all haplogroups except in one single haplotype (say for example I1a2) within one single haplogroup (in this case Hg I), then that base pair would be counted as different.]

Let me push my luck a little more and ask the same thing (how many base pairs are different) but this time for all mtdna haplogroups.

Thank you very much!!!!

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