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NRY Haplogroup R2 (M-124)

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  • NRY Haplogroup R2 (M-124)

    My Haplogroup is R2 (M-124), a clade which has about 10-15% incidence in South Asia. (I am a Pakistani). This clade also occurs in Caucasus (10%), Central Asia (6%) and Iran (2%). Can anyone help me with determining the phlogeography and place of origin of R2? What possible route did it follow into India? Finally, what prehistoric "culture" is R2 associated with?

    Any references or links to R2 studies/papers would be welcome.

    PS: My haplogroup was determined through SNP testing.


  • #2
    More on R2 (M-124)

    Genographic Project has updated its 'Atlas of the Human Journey' and several haplogroups not seen earlier, have been included. This includes R2 (M-124) whose place of origin has been determined by Genographic to be 'South Central Asia' which would be the present day -stans. The spread of this haplogroup, mainly into South Asia, is conjectured to be two-pronged, one group settling in what is now North India & Pakistan, while the other in Eastern India. Westward spread from Central Asia also took place as evidenced by its low frequency presence in Caucasus-Anatolia & Eastern Europe.

    Genographic's study contrasts with Sengupta's, which would have us believe an Indo-centric viewpoint of R2 origins being in Eastern India.

    The parent haplogroup R* (M-207) has also been represented on the revised atlas, with an early showing in Central Asia.


    • #3
      5TGSR on Ysearch, a member of the Polish-Lithuanian project, appears to be R2, although he has not been SNP-tested. His Ysearch entry only has 25 markers, but you can see all 37 on the project web site:


      • #4
        A New Y-Haplogroup R Forum

        Kaiser -

        There is a brand new forum for Y-Haplogroup R here.

        Please register, login and start posting.

        We need all the R2 guys we can get.


        • #5
          Stevo & Igmayka: Thanks for the info.


          • #6
            R2 Phylogeography Update

            ySearch has a rather anemic representation of R2, with only 17 people on the database (incl 5 additions during the last week). However, an interim phylogeographic report is as follows:

            South Asia - (47%), 8 subjects (7 Indian, 1 Pakistani of Indian origin)
            East Europe - (35%) 6 subjects (3 Ukraine, 1 Belarus, 1 Hungary, 1 Romania)
            North Europe - (12%) 2 subjects (1 England, 1 Wales)
            Caucasus - (6%) 1 subject (Armenia)

            The pattern of spread is quite similar to that of R1a; the bias towards East Europe is noteworthy. Contrary to Sengupta's finding of R2 being indigenous to South Asia, Genographic Project's 'South Central Asian' origins of R2 seem more tenable, so far. Of course, the very low number of South Asians who have tested for ancestry is a factor that has to be taken into account.


            • #7
              An excellent updated synopsis of Haplogroup R2 (M-124) is available at:



              • #8
                Haplogroup R2 Update

                The YSearch Haplogroup R2 entries have shown a slight increase and are now upto 27, paltry though they are, compared to other haplogroups.

                The latest phylogeographic report (based on YSearch entries) on this enigmatic South Asian/Central Asian haplogroup is as follows:

                South Asia - 50% (13 subjects incl 12 of Indian origin and one of Pakistani origin)
                East Europe - 34% (7 subjects incl 5 from Ukraine, 2 from Hungary and 2 from Baltic States)
                North Europe - 8% (2 subjects from Britain)
                South Europe - 4% (1 subject from Italy)
                Caucasus - 4% (1 subject of Armenian origin)

                The South Asian R2 representation is unfavourably skewed due to lack of wide-spread testing. Figures from recent studies show R2 at 10% within South Asia, so we are speaking of over 120 million people who belong to this group in India and Pakistan alone!

                All East European subjects seem to be of Jewish faith, (going by their names) and may be rooted amongst the Khazars who lived around the Caspian before their diaspora towards East Europe.

                R2 in North Europe indeed begs an explanation; adoption of Indian native/s readily springs to mind.
                Last edited by Kaiser; 20 April 2007, 08:32 AM.


                • #9
                  Latest on Haplogroup R2

                  Haplogroup R2 (M-124) phylogeographic report, based on latest 40 YSearch entries, is as follows:

                  South Asia - 50% (20 subjects, incl 19 of Indian origin and one of Pakistani origin)
                  East Europe - 32% (13 subjects, incl 7 from Ukraine, 4 from Baltic States, 2 from Hungary)
                  West Asia/Caucasus - 8% (3 subjects, incl 2 of Armenian origin, one Iranian)
                  North Europe - 5% (2 subjects from Britain)
                  South Europe - 2% (1 subject from Italy)
                  North America - 2% (1 subject from Canada)

                  The frequency of R2 in South Asia stands at ~ 13% and, people belonging to this Haplogroup are considered the third oldest in India, after Haplogroups C (M-130) and H (M-69). The presence of R2 in South Asia mirrors the distribution of R1a1 as far as language, geographic and social indicators are concerned. While the distribution of R2 across various geographic regions in India is almost uniform, a significant differentiation is observed along the social groups. A decreasing gradient is discernible as one moves up the caste hierarchy.

                  The East European R2 subjects continue to signal a Jewish lineage, possibly of Khazar origin rooted around the Caspian Sea.

                  The presence of R2 amongst North European, South European and North American subjects seems somewhat anamolous and, could possibly be explained by emigration (or past adoption?) of some East European or South Asian people.


                  • #10
                    Haplogroup R2 (M-124) Phylogeography Update

                    Haplogroup R2 (M-124) phylogeographic report, based on latest 55 ySearch entries (excluding 15 modals and group reports), is as follows:

                    South Asia - 51% (28 subjects, incl 24 of Indian origin, 3 of Pakistani origin and 1 from Afghanistan)
                    East Europe - 22% (12 subjects, incl 5 from Ukraine, 4 from Baltic States, 2 from Hungary and 1 from Belarus)
                    North Europe - 9% (5 subjects, incl 2 from Britain, 1 from France, 1 from Scotland and 1 from Switzerland)
                    West Asia/Caucasus - 7% (4 subjects, incl 2 of Armenian origin, 1 from Iran and 1 from Turkey)
                    North America - 5% (3 subjects, 1 from Canada, 1 from USA, and 1 from Cuba)
                    South Europe - 4% (2 subjects from Italy)
                    Sub-Saharan Africa - 2% (1 subject from South Africa, possibly of Iberian origin)

                    The presence of R2 amongst North European, South European, North American and South African subjects continues to be anamolous and, could possibly be explained by emigration of some East European or South Asian people.

                    A comparison with the previous updates posted in 2007 indicate an almost similar distribution of R2. A very slight decrease in East European figures and a minor increase in South Asian figures may be noted.

                    Addition of R2 to ySearch data base is very slow, with an average of one subject being added to the list per month. R2, indeed, continues to be an enigmatic haplogroup!