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  #11  
Old 28th June 2006, 11:31 AM
lee1906 lee1906 is offline
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Originally Posted by casadecoqui
Trends Genet. 2006 Jun;22(6):339-45.
Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree.
Torroni A, Achilli A, Macaulay V, Richards M, Bandelt HJ.
Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Universita di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have entered a new phase since the blossoming of complete genome analyses. Sequencing complete mtDNAs is more expensive and more labour intensive than restriction analysis or simply sequencing the control region of the molecule. But the efforts are
paying off, as the phylogenetic resolution of the mtDNA tree has been greatly improved, and, in turn, phylogeographic interpretations can be given correspondingly greater precision in terms of the timing and direction of human dispersals. Therefore, despite mtDNA being only a fraction of our total genome, the deciphering of its evolution is profoundly changing our perception about how modern humans spread across our planet. Here we illustrate the phylogeographic approach with two case studies: the initial dispersal out of Africa, and the colonization of Europe.
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Get this! One individual's HVR1 has TWENTY FOUR MUTATIONS... a new record!

Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree

If anyone has library privileges and can get this article I would be your cousin forever .... well, we probably are anyway!
Dr. Ana,

I can send you a pdf copy of this article. Just send me an email.

Hoyte
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  #12  
Old 28th June 2006, 05:42 PM
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casadecoqui casadecoqui is offline
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Smile

Thanks, "cuz"!

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Originally Posted by lee1906
Dr. Ana,

I can send you a pdf copy of this article. Just send me an email.

Hoyte
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  #13  
Old 28th June 2006, 10:57 PM
GregKiroKH GregKiroKH is offline
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Originally Posted by lee1906
Dr. Ana,

I can send you a pdf copy of this article. Just send me an email.

Hoyte
I found a link to the article at Vincent Macaulay's website. He also has links to some of his recent research papers.
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  #14  
Old 28th June 2006, 11:53 PM
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casadecoqui casadecoqui is offline
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Thanks, Greg.

For those that don't know of Dr. Vincent Macaulay's work, here is his URL:

Vincent Macaulay's Home page

Quote:
Originally Posted by GregKiroKH
I found a link to the article at Vincent Macaulay's website. He also has links to some of his recent research papers.
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  #15  
Old 1st July 2006, 06:25 PM
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casadecoqui casadecoqui is offline
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News Article

News Article on Yahoo - soon to be published in Nature Magazine

Roots of Human Family Tree are shallow
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  #16  
Old 4th July 2006, 12:04 PM
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casadecoqui casadecoqui is offline
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An Ancient Link to Africa Lives on in Bay of Bengal

************************************************** ******
Article Posted by Sasa

Forum Admin Note: (moved to this thread, 07-04-2006)

************************************************** ******

An Ancient Link to Africa Lives on in Bay of Bengal

Posted: Tuesday, December 24, 2002

Author: Nicholas Wade
Filed: 12/11/2002
Source: The New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/10/science/10ISLA.html

Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, a remote archipelago east of India, are direct descendants of the first modern humans to have inhabited Asia, geneticists conclude in a new study.

But the islanders lack a distinctive genetic feature found among Australian aborigines, another early group to leave Africa, suggesting they were part of a separate exodus.

The Andaman Islanders are "arguably the most enigmatic people on our planet," a team of geneticists led by Dr. Erika Hagelberg of the University of Oslo write in the journal Current Biology.

Their physical features ? short stature, dark skin, peppercorn hair and large buttocks ? are characteristic of African Pygmies. "They look like they belong in Africa, but here they are sitting in this island chain in the middle of the Indian Ocean," said Dr. Peter Underhill of Stanford University, a co-author of the new report.

Adding to the puzzle is that their language, according to Joseph Greenberg, who, before his death in 2001, classified the world's languages, belongs to a family that includes those of Tasmania, Papua New Guinea and Melanesia.

Dr. Hagelberg has undertaken the first genetic analysis of the Andamanese with the help of two Indian colleagues who took blood samples ? the islands belong to India ? and by analyzing hair gathered almost a century ago by a British anthropologist, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown. The islands were isolated from the outside world until the British set up a penal colony there after the Indian mutiny of 1857.

Only four of the dozen tribes that once inhabited the island survive, with a total population of about 500 people. These include the Jarawa, who still live in the forest, and the Onge, who have been settled by the Indian government.

Genetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA, a genetic element passed down only through women, shows that the Onge and Jarawa people belong to a lineage, known as M, that is common throughout Asia, the geneticists say. This establishes them as Asians, not Africans, among whom a different mitochondrial lineage, called L, is dominant.

The geneticists then looked at the Y chromosome, which is passed down only through men and often gives a more detailed picture of genetic history than the mitochondrial DNA. The Onge and Jarawa men turned out to carry a special change or mutation in the DNA of their Y chromosome that is thought to be indicative of the Paleolithic population of Asia, the hunters and gatherers who preceded the first human settlements.

The mutation, known as Marker 174, occurs among ethnic groups at the periphery of Asia who avoided being swamped by the populations that spread after the agricultural revolution that occurred about 8,000 years ago. It is found in many Japanese, in the Tibetans of the Himalayas and among isolated people of Southeast Asia, like the Hmong.

The discovery of Marker 174 among the Andamanese suggests that they too are part of this relict Paleolithic population, descended from the first modern humans to leave Africa.

Dr. Underhill, an expert on the genetic history of the Y chromosome, said the Paleolithic population of Asia might well have looked as African as the Onge and Jarawa do now, and that people with the appearance of present-day Asians might have emerged only later. It is also possible, he said, that their resemblance to African Pygmies is a human adaptation to living in forests that the two populations developed independently.

A finding of particular interest is that the Andamanese do not carry another Y chromosome signature, known as Marker RPS4Y, that is common among Australian aborigines.

This suggests that there were at least two separate emigrations of modern humans from Africa, Dr. Underhill said. Both probably left northeast Africa by boat 40,000 or 50,000 years ago and pushed slowly along the coastlines of the Arabian Peninsula and India. No archaeological record of these epic journeys has been found, perhaps because the world's oceans were 120 meters lower during the last ice age and the evidence of early human passage is under water.

One group of emigrants that acquired the Marker 174 mutation reached Southeast Asia, including the Andaman islands, and then moved inland and north to Japan, in Dr. Underhill's reconstruction. A second group, carrying the Marker RPS4Y, took a different fork in Southeast Asia, continuing south toward Australia.
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  #17  
Old 12th July 2006, 12:24 AM
Sasa Sasa is offline
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Africans in the Americas

BLACK CIVILIZATIONS OF ANCIENT AMERICA (MUU-LAN), MEXICO (XI)
(beautiful photos of artifacts at website)

http://www.raceandhistory.com/histor...entamerica.htm

Gigantic stone head of Negritic African
during the Olmec (Xi) Civilization

By Paul Barton
Negritic African The earliest people in the Americas were people of the Negritic African race, who entered the Americas perhaps as early as 100,000 years ago, by way of the bering straight and about thirty thousand years ago in a worldwide maritime undertaking that included journeys from the then wet and lake filled Sahara towards the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, and from West Africa across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas.

According to the Gladwin Thesis, this ancient journey occurred, particularly about 75,000 years ago and included Black Pygmies, Black Negritic peoples and Black Australoids similar to the Aboriginal Black people of Australia and parts of Asia, including India.

Ancient African terracotta portraits 1000 B.C. to 500 B.C.
African terracotta Recent discoveries in the field of linguistics and other methods have shown without a doubt, that the ancient Olmecs of Mexico, known as the Xi People, came originally from West Africa and were of the Mende African ethnic stock. According to Clyde A. Winters and other writers (see Clyde A. Winters website), the Mende script was discovered on some of the ancient Olmec monuments of Mexico and were found to be identical to the very same script used by the Mende people of West Africa. Although the carbon fourteen testing date for the presence of the Black Olmecs or Xi People is about 1500 B.C., journies to the Mexico and the Southern United States may have come from West Africa much earlier, particularly around five thousand years before Christ. That conclusion is based on the finding of an African native cotton that was discovered in North America. It's only possible manner of arriving where it was found had to have been through human hands. At that period in West African history and even before, civilization was in full bloom in the Western Sahara in what is today Mauritania. One of Africa's earliest civilizations, the Zingh Empire, existed and may have lived in what was a lake filled, wet and fertile Sahara, where ships criss-crossed from place to place.

ANCIENT AFRICAN KINGDOMS PRODUCED
OLMEC TYPE CULTURES

The ancient kingdoms of West Africa which occupied the Coastal forest belt from Cameroon to Guinea had trading relationships with other Africans dating back to prehistoric times. However, by 1500 B.C., these ancient kingdoms not only traded along the Ivory Coast, but with the Phoenicians and other peoples. They expanded their trade to the Americas, where the evidence for an ancient African presence is overwhelming. The kingdoms which came to be known by Arabs and Europeans during the Middle Ages were already well established when much of Western Europe was still inhabited by Celtic tribes. By the 5th Century B.C., the Phoenicians were running comercial ships to several West African kingdoms. During that period, iron had been in use for about one thousand years and terracotta art was being produced at a great level of craftsmanship. Stone was also being carved with naturalistic perfection and later, bronze was being used to make various tools and instruments, as well as beautifully naturalistic works of art.

The ancient West African coastal and interior Kingdoms occupied an area that is now covered with dense vegetation but may have been cleared about three to four thousand years ago. This includes the regions from the coasts of West Africa to the South, all the way inland to the Sahara. A number of large kingdoms and empires existed in that area. According to Blisshords Communications, one of the oldest empires and civilizions on earth existed just north of the coastal regions into what is today Mauritania. It was called the Zingh Empire and was highly advanced. In fact, they were the first to use the red, black and green African flag and to plant it throughout their territory all over Africa and the world.........CONTINUED

http://www.raceandhistory.com/histor...entamerica.htm
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  #18  
Old 25th August 2006, 06:09 PM
GregKiroKH GregKiroKH is offline
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http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/m...b78qa6vedc.pdf

I was at school looking for interesting articles covering autosomes. This was an interesting article, but I could not get it from home because I do not have a password.
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Old 25th August 2006, 07:17 PM
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casadecoqui casadecoqui is offline
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Greg,

What's the name of the article? Your link will only take people to the registration or splash page.

Is it "A brief history of human autosomes" by D. Haig?
I have access and attached a copy below.


Quote:
Originally Posted by GregKiroKH
http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/m...b78qa6vedc.pdf

I was at school looking for interesting articles covering autosomes. This was an interesting article, but I could not get it from home because I do not have a password.
Attached Files
File Type: pdf A brief history of human autosomes - Haig.pdf (522.2 KB, 3 views)

Last edited by casadecoqui; 25th August 2006 at 07:30 PM.
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  #20  
Old 26th August 2006, 07:30 PM
GregKiroKH GregKiroKH is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by casadecoqui
Greg,

What's the name of the article? Your link will only take people to the registration or splash page.

Is it "A brief history of human autosomes" by D. Haig?
I have access and attached a copy below.
Thanks for making it available, Ana. I think it is a nice article even thou it is from 1999. It is the same article. I had a copy on my key, and I read it this morning. I think I am excited about genetics again. Are there any newer articles to read concerning autosomes or human genetics?
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